Eastern Turkic Khaganate

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Eastern Turkic Khaganate
Khaganate
581–630
Greatest extent of the Eastern Turkic Khaganate
(It probably did not reach the Pacific)
Capital Ordu Baliq
Languages Turkic
Religion Tengrism
Political structure Khaganate
Historical era Early Middle Ages
 •  Turkic Khaganate founded 552
 •  Göktürk civil war, Eastern Turkic dynasty founded 581
 •  Conquest by Tang dynasty 630
 •  Second Turkic Khaganate established c. 680
Area
 •  624[1] 4,000,000 km2 (1,500,000 sq mi)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Turkic Khaganate
Xueyantuo
Tang Dynasty
Today part of  China
 Mongolia
 Russia
 Kazakhstan
History of the Turkic peoples
History of the Turkic peoples
Pre-14th century
Turkic Khaganate 552–744
  Western Turkic
  Eastern Turkic
Khazar Khaganate 618–1048
Xueyantuo 628–646
Great Bulgaria 632–668
  Danube Bulgaria
  Volga Bulgaria
Kangar union 659–750
Turk Shahi 665–850
Turgesh Khaganate 699–766
Uyghur Khaganate 744–840
Karluk Yabgu State 756–940
Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212
  Western Kara-Khanid
  Eastern Kara-Khanid
Gansu Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036
Kingdom of Qocho 856–1335
Pecheneg Khanates
860–1091
Kimek Khanate
743–1035
Cumania
1067–1239
Oghuz Yabgu State
750–1055
Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186
Seljuk Empire 1037–1194
  Seljuk Sultanate of Rum
Kerait khanate 11th century–13th century
Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231
Naiman Khanate –1204
Qarlughid Kingdom 1224–1266
Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526
  Mamluk dynasty
  Khalji dynasty
  Tughlaq dynasty
Golden Horde | [2][3][4] 1240s–1502
Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) 1250–1517
  Bahri dynasty
  Ottoman Empire 1299–1923

The Eastern Turkic Khaganate (Chinese: 東突厥; pinyin: Dōng tūjué) was a Turkic khaganate formed as a result of the internecine wars in the beginning of the 7th century (AD 593–603) after the Göktürk Khaganate (founded in the 6th century in Mongolia by the Ashina clan) had splintered into two polities – Eastern and Western. Finally, the Eastern Turkic power was absorbed by the Chinese Tang Empire.

History[edit]

Outline[edit]

In 552-555 the Gokturks replaced the Rouran in Mongolia, forming the Turkic Khaganate (552-630). They quickly spread west to the Caspian Sea. Between 581 and 603 the Western Turkic Khaganate in Kazakhstan separated from the Eastern Khaganate in Mongolia. In the early period the Chinese were weak and paid tribute to the Turks. The Chinese grew stronger and overthrew the Eastern Turks in 630.

The sequence of ruling groups was c400-555: Rouran Khaganate; 552-630: Gokturks; 630-682: disunion; 682-744: Second Turkic Khaganate; 744-840: Uyghur Khaganate. The Gokturk rulers were the first dynasty to definitely speak a Turkic language (Orkhon inscriptions). An important part was played by the Sogdian merchants who controlled the silk road trade and advised the Turkic rulers. The Gokturks and Mongols were the only two empires to rule both the eastern and central steppe (modern Mongolia and Kazakhstan).

Before the Khaganate[edit]

‘Turk’, meaning something like ‘strong’, was the self-description of the small Ashina clan or tribe. It was later applied to the Gokturk Khaganate and later by Muslim historians to all speakers of Turkic languages. The Chinese equivalent, Tujue,[a] was sometimes applied to many northern peoples and does not always mean 'Turk' in the strict sense. The Chinese report that in 439 a man named Ashina led 500 families west from Gansu to Gaochang near Turfan. [5] About 460 the Rouran moved them east to the Altai which was an important source of metalwork for Siberia and Mongolia. David Christian says that the first dated mention of ‘Turk’ appears in Chinese annals in 542 when they made annual raids across the Yellow River when it froze over. In 545 the future Bumin Qaghan was negotiating directly with the Western Wei (535-57) without regard to his Rouran overlords. Later the Turks were sent east to suppress a rebellion by the Kao-ch’e, but the Turks absorbed them into their own army. Bumin demanded a royal bride from the Rouran and was denounced as a ‘blacksmith slave’. Bumin took a bride from the Western Wei, defeated the Rouran ruler in Jehol and took the royal title of Khagan (552).

Nominal unity (552-581)[edit]

The west was given to Bumin’s younger brother Istämi (552-75) and his son Tardush (575-603). Ishtami expanded the empire to the Caspian and Oxus. The Gokturks somehow gained the Tarim Basin and thus the Silk Road trade and the Sogdian merchants that managed it. Bumin died in the year of his rebellion (552) and was followed by three of his sons. Issik Qaghan (552-53) reigned briefly. Muqan Khagan (553-72) finished off the remaining Rouran, who resisted until 555, pushed the Kitans east and controlled the Yenisei Kirghiz. He was followed by Taspar Qaghan (572-81). The three brothers extracted a large amount of booty and tribute from the Western Wei (535-57) and Northern Zhou (557-581), including 100,000 rolls of silk annually.

East-West split (581-603)[edit]

In 581 the Sui dynasty was founded and began to reunify China. The Chinese began pushing back, generally by supporting or bribing one faction against the other. Taspar died the same year the Sui dynasty was founded. The three claimants were the sons of the three previous rulers. Taspar chose Muqan’s son Apa Qaghan, but the elders rejected this and chose Taspar’s son Anlo (581). Anlo soon yielded to Issik's son Ishbara Qaghan (581-87). Anlo became insignificant and Apa and Ishbara fought it out. In 584 Ishbara attacked Apa and drove him west to Bumin's brother Tardush, who ruled what was becoming the Western Khaganate. Apa and Tardush then drove Ishbara east. He submitted to the Chinese and with Chinese support drove Apa west into Tardush’s territory. In 587 both Apa and Ishbara died. See Gokturk civil war. Ishbara was followed in the east by his brother Bagha Qaghan (587-88) who was followed by Ishbara’s son Tulan Qaghan (588-99). In 587 Tulan stopped paying tribute to the Sui and two years later was assassinated. Tardush moved from the west and briefly reunified the Turkic empire (599-603). The Chinese supported his rivals, he attacked China, the Chinese poisoned the wells and he was forced to retreat.

Independence (603-630)[edit]

From 603 the east and west were definitely split. The east went to Yami Qaghan (603-09) as a sort of Chinese vassal. He admired Chinese culture and had the Chinese build him a civilized house in the Ordos country. During the reign of his son Shibi Qaghan (609-19) the Turks were stronger and the Sui dynasty weaker. In 615 the Chinese lured his Sogdian advisor into a trap and killed him. He stopped paying tribute and briefly besieged Emperor Yang of Sui in Shanxi. In 617 he allied with Li Yuan, the future Emperor Gaozu of Tang, and joined in the siege of Chang’an which his men looted. His younger brother Chuluo (619-20) ruled for only 18 months. The next brother, Illig Qaghan (620-30), was the last independent ruler. He led yearly raids against the new Tang dynasty (618-907). In 626 he reached the gates of Chang’an. Emperor Taizong of Tang, who had just overthrown his father, chose to pay an enormous ransom. Taizong waited and enlarged his cavalry. In 627-29 unusual cold led to mass livestock deaths and famine. Instead of lowering taxes, Illig raised them. The Xueyantuo, Uyghurs, Bayegu and some of Illig’s people rebelled and in 629 were joined by the Kitan and Taizong. Six Chinese armies attacked in a 1200 kilometer front and Illig was captured (630). See Tang campaign against the Eastern Turks.

After the First Khaganate (630-683)[edit]

After the fall of the Khaganate Zhenzhu Khan (629-45) of the Xueyantuo ruled much of the north. Taizong made the Ashina live inside the Ordos Loop. In 639, after an Ashina assassination attempt, Taizong made them live between the Yellow River and Gobi under Qilibi Khan (639-43) as a buffer state between China and the Xueyantuo. In 642 the Xueyantuo drove them south of the river. (See Tang campaign against the Eastern Turks#Aftermath in Mongolia.) Zhenzhu’s son Duomi Khan (645-46) planned to attack China. Taizong allied with the Uyghurs and broke up the Xueyantuo clan. The Ashina Chebi Khan (646-50) tried to revive the Khaganate but was captured by the Chinese and Uyghurs. Two more attempts by Ashina Nishufu (679-80) and Ashina Funian (680-681) failed. Turkic power was restored by the Second Turkic Khaganate (682-744), followed by the Uyghur Khaganate (744-840).

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Wade-Giles: T’u-Chüeh.

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ Taagepera, Rein (1979). "Size and Duration of Empires: Growth-Decline Curves, 600 B.C. to 600 A.D". Social Science History. 3 (3/4): 129. doi:10.2307/1170959. Retrieved 16 September 2016. 
  2. ^ Marshall Cavendish Corporation (2006). Peoples of Western Asia. p. 364. 
  3. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (2007). Historic Cities of the Islamic World. p. 280. 
  4. ^ Borrero, Mauricio (2009). Russia: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present. p. 162. 
  5. ^ Christian, page 251, citing 'Sui annals'. Wiki articles Gaochang and Ashina are somewhat different.

Bibliography[edit]