# List of Greek inventions and discoveries

This article is a list of major inventions and scientific and mathematical discoveries by Greek people from antiquity through the present day.

## Contents

## Inventions[edit]

- Catapult - The historian Diodorus Siculus mentions the invention of a mechanical arrow-firing catapult (katapeltikon) by a Greek task force in 399 BC.* Campbell, Duncan (2003),
*Greek and Roman Artillery 399 BC – AD 363*, Oxford: Osprey, p. 3, ISBN 1-84176-634-8 - Pap smear - A test for cervical cancer developed by the Greek physician George Papanikolaou in 1923.
^{[1]} - Water mill -

## Discoveries[edit]

### Mathematics[edit]

- Conic sections - First developed by Menaechmus in the 4th century BC, but the most significant contribution is by Apollonius of Perga in the 3rd century BC.
^{[2]} - Exhaustion, method of - Formalized by Eudoxus of Cnidus in the early 4th century BC, used by Archimedes to calculate the value of Pi and the area under a curve.
^{[3]} - Proof, mathematical - The mathematical proof was a product of Greek mathematics, evolving gradually to reach the method still used today in Euclid's
*Elements*around 300 BC.^{[4]} - Sieve of Eratosthenes - Developed by Eratosthenes in the 3rd century BC to calculate prime numbers.
^{[5]}

### Natural Sciences[edit]

- Circumference of the Earth - The circumference of the Earth was first calculated by Eratosthenes of Cyrene in 240 BC, with an error of 2% to 15% (depending on the definition of a
*stadion*).^{[6]} - Heliocentrism - The notion that the Earth and planets revolves around the Sun was first proposed by Aristarchus of Samos in the 3rd century BC.
^{[7]} - Spherical Earth - The concept of a spherical Earth first appears in the writings of the Pythagoreans around the 6th century BC.
^{[8]}

## See also[edit]

## References[edit]

**^**Diamantis A, Magiorkinis E, Androutsos G., What's in a name? Evidence that Papanicolaou, not Babes, deserves credit for the Pap test., Diagn Cytopathol. 2010 Jul;38(7):473-6. doi:10.1002/dc.21226**^**Boyer, C.B.; Ute Merzbach (1991),*A History of Mathematics*(2nd ed.), New York: Wiley, p. 145, ISBN 0-471-09763-2**^**Boyer, C.B.; Ute Merzbach (1991),*A History of Mathematics*(2nd ed.), New York: Wiley, p. 92, ISBN 0-471-09763-2**^**Boyer, C.B.; Ute Merzbach (1991),*A History of Mathematics*(2nd ed.), New York: Wiley, p. 104, ISBN 0-471-09763-2**^**Boyer, C.B.; Ute Merzbach (1991),*A History of Mathematics*(2nd ed.), New York: Wiley, p. 161, ISBN 0-471-09763-2**^**Van Helden, Albert (1985).*Measuring the Universe: Cosmic Dimensions from Aristarchus to Halley*. University of Chicago Press. pp. 4–5. ISBN 0-226-84882-5.**^**C. M. Linton (12 August 2004).*From Eudoxus to Einstein: A History of Mathematical Astronomy*. Cambridge University Press. pp. 38–39. ISBN 978-1-139-45379-0.**^**Dicks, D.R. (1970).*Early Greek Astronomy to Aristotle*. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press. pp. 72–198. ISBN 978-0-8014-0561-7.