List of World Heritage Sites in the Philippines
The UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) has designated six World Heritage Sites in the Philippines. The UNESCO World Heritage Sites are places of importance to cultural or natural heritage as described in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention.
The Philippines, following its ratification of the convention on Thursday, September 19, 1985, made its historical and natural sites eligible for inclusion on the list. The Philippines had its first sites included in 1993, and since 2014, has six sites on the list spanning nine locations. Of those six sites, three are cultural and three natural. The first 5 sites inscribed in the UNESCO Heritage List was initiated by ICOMOS Philippines, an non-profit heritage organization, which partnered with the UNESCO National Commission of the Philippines.
In 2015, the 28 sites in the 'Tentative List' were revised. Currently, the Tentative List for possible nomination in the future contains nineteen submissions. Many other sites have been proposed to be included in the tentative list.
The Philippine National Government, the National Museum of the Philippines, the University of Santo Tomas, the UNESCO Commission of the Philippines and other concerned parties encourage more historic churches, municipal and city governments, provincial governments, national parks, and private entities to submit their nominations of sites that they have jurisdiction of to UNESCO to revitalize heritage conservation in the country and to internationalize the importance of heritage conservation in the Philippines, which is seen to be the greatest frontier of westernized Asian nations in a hastily industrializing Asia. Some scholars have suggested for Filipino UNESCO-related agencies to undergo UNESCO cooperation with Spain and France to maximize the possibility of more UNESCO declarations in the country as declarations since the entrance of the 21st century was regarded as 'too few and very slow' (1-2 sites per 10 years) as compared to UNESCO records of Asian peers, namely, Japan (1-2 sites per 5 years), India (3-5 sites per 8 years) and China (1-3 sites per 2 years). The Heritage Conservation Society said in 2013 that the world heritage committee (WHC) membership of the Philippines, which will be from 2013 to 2017, will serve as "preparation time" for future nominations as the government and numerous NGO's are finalizing nomination dossiers of the country for 2018 onward.
Each member state is given the chance to present one nomination every year since 2016. The lack of nominations from the Philippines is partially contributed by the lack of a holistic Department of Culture. A bill, establishing a Department of Culture, is still pending at both houses of Philippine Congress. The bill is backed by all cultural agencies of government, however, it was shaken from the original timeline due to political tensions during the death penalty debates and voting in late 2016.
In November 2017, the Philippines was elected as a member of the Executive Board of UNESCO.
- 1 Nomination process of World Heritage Sites
- 2 World Heritage list
- 3 Tentative List
- 4 Pending transboundary nominations
- 5 Members of the Organization of World Heritage Cities Programme
- 6 Possible future sites and former tentative sites
- 7 UNESCO Global Geoparks in the Philippines
- 8 UNESCO creative cities network in the Philippines
- 9 UNESCO Asia Pacific Heritage Awards
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 External links
Nomination process of World Heritage Sites
The National Commission for Culture and the Arts and other heritage agencies (National Museum of the Philippines, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, National Historical Commission of the Philippines, and others), are the prime nominators of the Republic of the Philippines, though other entities can nominate sites in the tentative list as well, such as universities and NGOs.
The Republic of the Philippines first became a committee member from 1991 up to 1997, where 3 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the country were enlisted in heritage list. Its first committee membership also brought the first site declaration in the country and the most site declarations in a given time frame. It became a committee member again from 2011 up to 2017, where only 1 site for the country was declared. The state did not participate heavily in the nomination of its own sites in its second term due to the intention of the government to act as a 'neutral' committee member and to use the time between 2013-2017 as prepration for future nominations, according to the Heritage Conservation Society.
World Heritage list
A proposal has been suggested by scholars to make a separate UNESCO inclusion for the entire Intramuros district, which would include San Agustin Church. The same would be made for the other three churches listed in UNESCO, where each town plaza and surrounding heritage buildings would be added. The move would separate the 4 properties of the site and would fruit into 4 distinct UNESCO World Heritage Sites for the Philippines. No government agency has yet to take action on the proposal. If pursued and becomes successful, it will be the first site diversification in UNESCO history.
|Cultural: (ii)(iv)||Baroque Churches of the Philippines||Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte||The Church of San Agustín at Paoay is the most outstanding example in the Philippines of 'Earthquake Baroque'. Fourteen buttresses are ranged along the lines of a giant volute supporting a smaller one and surmounted by pyramidal finials. A pair of buttresses at the midpoint of each nave wall have stairways for access to the roof. The lower part of the apse and most of the walls are constructed of coral stone blocks, the upper levels being finished in brick, but this order is reversed on the facade. The massive coral stone bell tower, which was added half a century after the church was completed, stands at some distance from the church, again as a protection against damage during earthquakes.||1993|||
|Santa Maria Church in Ilocos Sur||Unlike other town churches in the Philippines, which conform to the Spanish tradition of sitting them on the central plaza, the Church of Nuestra Señora de la Asuncion in Santa Maria with its convento are on a hill surrounded by a defensive wall. Also unusual are the sitting of the convento parallel to the facade of the church and that of the separate bell tower (characteristic of Philippine-Hispanic architecture) at the midpoint of the nave wall. This was dictated by the hill on which it is located. The brick church follows the standard Philippine layout, with a monumental facade masking a straight roof-line covering a long rectangular building. It is alleged to be built on a solid raft as a precaution against earthquake damage. The walls are devoid of ornament but have delicately carved side entrances and strong buttresses.|
|Miagao Church in Iloilo||The Church of Santo Tomas de Villanueva stands on the highest point of Miagao, its towers serving as lookouts against Muslim raids. It is the finest surviving example of 'Fortress Baroque'. The sumptuous facade epitomizes the Filipino transfiguration of western decorative elements, with the figure of Saint Christopher on the pediment dressed in native clothes, carrying the Christ Child on his back, and holding on to a coconut palm for support. The entire riotously decorated facade is flanked by massive tapering bell towers of unequal heights.|
|San Agustin Church in Manila||The Church of the Immaculate Conception of San Agustín was the first church built on the island of Luzon in 1571, immediately after the Spanish conquest of Manila. A site within the district of Intramuros was assigned to the Augustinian Order, the first to evangelize in the Philippines. In 1587 the impermanent earliest building in wood and palm fronds was replaced by a stone church and monastery in stone, the latter becoming the Augustinian mother house in the Philippines. It was the only structure in Intramuros to survive the liberation of Manila in 1945. Miag-ao became an independent parish in 1731, when a simple church and convento were built. However, destruction of the town by Muslim pirates in 1741 and 1754 led to the town being rebuilt in a more secure location. The new church, constructed in 1787–97, was built as a fortress, to withstand further incursions. It was, however, damaged severely by fire during the revolution against Spain in 1898 and in the Second World War. Two bell towers were added in 1854, but the northern one cracked in the 1880 earthquake and had to be demolished. In the interior of the church the wall paintings date from the 19th century, but they overlie the original tempera murals. As a result, the church was richly endowed, with a fine retablo, pulpit, lectern and choir-stalls. Of special interest is the series of crypto-collateral chapels lining both sides of the nave. The walls separating them act as buttresses. The stone barrel vault, dome, and arched vestibule are all unique in the Philippines. A monastery complex was formerly linked to the church by a series of cloisters, arcades, courtyards and gardens, but all except one building were destroyed in 1945.|
|Cultural: (ii)(iv)||Historic Town of Vigan||Ilocos Sur||Established in the 16th century, Vigan is the best-preserved example of a planned Spanish colonial town in Asia. Its architecture reflects the coming together of cultural elements from elsewhere in the Philippines, from China and from Europe, resulting in a culture and townscape that have no parallel anywhere in East and South-East Asia. Vigan is an exceptionally intact and well-preserved example of a European trading town in East and South-East Asia. The architecture is truly reflective of its roots in both materials and design, in its fusion of Asian building design and construction with European colonial architecture and planning. The town is located in the delta of the Abra River, off the coastal plain of the China Sea, close to the north-east tip of the island of Luzon. The present-day municipality divided into nine urban districts and thirty rural villages. Almost half the total area is still in use for agriculture. The Historic Core Zone is defined on two sides by the Govantes and Mestizo rivers.||1999|||
|Natural: (x)||Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary||Davao Oriental||Forming a north-south running mountain ridge along the Pujada Peninsula in the southeastern part of the Eastern Mindanao Biodiversity Corridor, the Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary has an elevation range of 75–1,637 m above sea level, and provides critical habitat for a range of plant and animal species. The property showcases terrestrial and aquatic habitats and the species that they host at a series of different elevations are responding to highly dissimilar soil and climate conditions. The Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary provides a sanctuary to a host of globally threatened and endemic flora and fauna species, eight of which are found nowhere else except Mount Hamiguitan. These include critically endangered trees, plants and the iconic Philippine Eagle and Philippine Cockatoo.||2014|||
|Natural: (vii)(x)||Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park||Palawan||The site of the Puerto-Princesa Subterranean River National Park is located in the Saint Paul Mountain Range. It is north-west of Puerto Princesa, the capital of Palawan Province. The topography varies from flat plains to rolling hinterlands and hills to mountain peaks. Over 90% of the park comprises sharp, karst limestone ridges around Mount Saint Paul, which is itself part of a series of rounded, limestone peaks aligned on a north-south axis, along the western coast of Palawan. The focus of the area is a spectacular karst landscape which features both surface karst features (pinnacles, shafts, dolines and limestone cliffs), as well as an extensive underground river system. The subterranean river is 8.2 kilometres (5.1 mi) long, one of the most unusual of its type in the world and includes many speleotherms, several large chambers exist, up to 120 metres (390 ft) wide and 60 metres (200 ft) high. A distinguishing feature of the river is the fact that it emerges directly into the sea, and that the lower portion of the river is brackish and subject to tidal influences. The underground river (the Cabayugan River) arises approximately 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) south-west of Mount Saint Paul at an altitude of 100 metres (330 ft), and flows underground for almost its entire length to an outflow into Saint Paul's Bay. All rivers and associated tributaries are within the park, which is important in relation to catchments impacts on the water quality of the Cabayugan River. It has been declared as one of the New7Wonders of Nature.||1999|||
|Cultural: (iii)(iv)(v)||Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras: Batad Rice Terraces, Bangaan Rice Terraces (both in Banaue), Mayoyao Rice Terraces (in Mayoyao), Hungduan Rice Terraces (in Hungduan) and Nagacadan Rice Terraces (in Kiangan)||Ifugao||For 2,000 years, the high rice fields of the Ifugao have followed the contours of the mountains. The fruit of knowledge handed down from one generation to the next, and the expression of sacred traditions and a delicate social balance, they have helped to create a landscape of great beauty that expresses the harmony between humankind and the environment. The rice terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras are living cultural landscapes devoted to the production of one of the world's most important staple crops, rice. They preserve traditional techniques and forms dating back many centuries, still viable today. At the same time they illustrate a remarkable degree of harmony between humankind and the natural environment of great aesthetic appeal, as well as demonstrating sustainable farming systems in mountainous terrain, based on a careful use of natural resources. They are the only monuments in the Philippines that show no evidence of having been influenced by colonial cultures. Owing to the difficult terrain, the Cordillera tribes are among the few peoples of the Philippines who have successfully resisted foreign domination and preserved their authentic tribal culture. The history of the terraces is intertwined with that of its people, their culture, and their traditional practices.||1995|||
|Natural: (vii)(ix)(x)||Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park||Sulu Sea||Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park lies in a unique position in the centre of the Sulu Sea, and includes the Tubbataha and Jessie Beazley Reefs. It protects an area of almost 100,000 hectares (250,000 acres) of high quality marine habitats containing three atolls and a large area of deep sea. The property is home to a great diversity of marine life. Whales, dolphins, sharks, turtles and Napoleon wrasse are among the key species found here. The reef ecosystems support over 350 species of coral and almost 500 species of fish. The reserve also protects one of the few remaining colonies of breeding seabirds in the region.||1993|||
The following 19 sites are on the Tentative List for the Philippines, meaning that the government intends to consider them for nomination in the future:
There has been a proposal to separate the five Baroque Churches of the Philippines (Extension) properties, where each site shall include town plazas and surrounding heritage buildings, so they can stand on their own as UNESCO Heritage Sites. There has also been a similar proposal for the Petroglyphs and Petrographs of the Philippine which contains five properties located in completely different cultural zones.
In 2014, the Lazi Church as a sole site was nominated by the Philippines, however, UNESCO advised the government to prepare a more complete dossier first, including its surrounding heritage structures and domains.
In March 20, 2015, the UNESCO Tentative List of the Philippines was fully revised after recommendations from the UNESCO itself. The original Tentative List before the March 2015 Revision enlisted 28 sites. In October 2015, the National Commission for Culture and the Arts announced through their official Instagram account that they shall nominate the Sugar Centrals of the Philippines and related properties of Negros Occidental to the World Heritage List in the near future. Though the site has yet to be entered in the tentative list.
In 2016, the government undertook a UNESCO conference to prepare the dossiers of more than ten sites in the country, notably Coron Natural Biotic Area, Mount Mantalingahan Protected Landscape, and the Chocolate Hills Natural Monument, among many others. A second conference followed afterwards, where most of the participants were from sites categorized as natural properties. Representatives from cultural sites, notably chuches, lacked during both of the conferences despite government contacts.
In 2017, Tourism secretary Wanda Teo ordered the Nickelodeon Theme Park in Coron to push through, despite the site being an ecological frontier, a natural biotic area, and part of the country's tentative list to UNESCO. The establishment of the theme park endangers the site's inclusion in the World Heritage List. In August of the same year, after a massive backlash from environmental groups and the majority of the public, it was announced that the theme park would no longer push through.
|Natural: (vii)(ix)(x)||Apo Reef Natural Park||Sulu Sea|||
|Cultural: (i)(iii)(iv)(v)(vi)||Baroque Churches of the Philippines (Extension)
|Mixed||Batanes Protected landscapes and seascapes||Batanes|||
|Cultural: (iii)(iv)(v)||Butuan Archeological Sites||Agusan del Norte|||
|Natural: (vii)(viii)||Chocolate Hills Natural Monument||Bohol|||
|Mixed: (iii)(ix)(x)||Coron Island Natural Biotic Area||Palawan|||
|Natural: (ix)(x)||El Nido-Taytay Managed Resource Protected Area||Palawan|||
|Cultural: (i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(v)(vi)||Kabayan Mummy Burial Caves||Benguet|||
|Natural: (vii)(x)||Mayon Volcano Natural Park (MMVNP)||Albay|||
|Natural: (ix)(x)||Mounts Iglit-Baco National Park||Mindoro|||
|Natural: (vii)(ix)(x)||Mount Malindang Range Natural Park||Misamis Occidental|||
|Natural: (ix)(x)||Mount Mantalingajan Protected Landscape||Palawan||The peak of Mt. Mantalingahan towering at 2,085 metres (6,841 ft) above sea level is the highest peak in the province and considered sacred by the indigenous Palawan people.|||
|Natural: (ix)(x)||Mount Pulag National Park||Luzon|||
|Cultural: (ii)(iii)(iv)(v)||Neolithic Shell Midden Sites in Lal-lo and Gattaran Municipalities||Cagayan|||
|Natural: (ix)(x)||Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park and outlying areas inclusive of the buffer zone||Isabela|||
|Cultural: (ii)(iii)(iv)(v)||Paleolithic Archaeological Sites in Cagayan Valley
|Cultural: (iii)||Petroglyphs and Petrographs of the Philippines
|Cultural: (ii)(iii)(iv)(v)||The Tabon Cave Complex and all of Lipuun||Palawan|||
|Natural: (ix)(x)||Turtle Islands Wildlife Sanctuary||Tawi-Tawi|||
Pending transboundary nominations
An Experts' Roundtable Meeting was held at the University of Santo Tomas (UST) on April 23, 2015 as part of the preparation of the Philippines for the possible transnational nomination of the Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade Route to the World Heritage List. The nomination will be made jointly with Mexico.
The following are the experts and the topics they discussed during the roundtable meeting: Dr. Celestina Boncan on the Tornaviaje; Dr. Mary Jane A. Bolunia on Shipyards in the Bicol Region; Mr. Sheldon Clyde Jago-on, Bobby Orillaneda, and Ligaya Lacsina on Underwater Archaeology; Dr. Leovino Garcia on Maps and Cartography; Fr. Rene Javellana, S.J. on Fortifications in the Philippines; Felice Sta. Maria on Food; Dr. Fernando Zialcita on Textile; and Regalado Trota Jose on Historical Dimension. The papers presented and discussed during the roundtable meeting will be synthesized into a working document to establish the route's Outstanding Universal Value. The idea to nominate the site was initiated by the Mexican ambassador to UNESCO with the Filipino ambassador to UNESCO in 2014.
|Mixed||The Historic Manila‑Acapulco Galleon Trade Route||Philippines and Mexico|||
Members of the Organization of World Heritage Cities Programme
The Philippines has currently 2 cities that are members of Organization of World Heritage Cities (OWHC), a more than 250-city member organization. The first was the city of Vigan in Ilocos Sur followed by the municipality of Miagao in Iloilo.
The Organization of World Heritage Cities inscribed Miagao on the basis that it possesses the Miagao Church, however, in the inscription description, it covered all towns/cities that possess a UNESCO-inscribed Baroque-style church (including Manila, Santa Maria, and Paoay), making it eligible for those three other towns/cities to be inscribed as World Heritage Cities.
A member city may be nominated by any party for the Jean-Paul-L'Allier Prize for Heritage which is given by the OWHC every two years. The nomination is submitted via the website of the OWHC.
|Vigan||Ilocos Sur||Vigan, established in the 16th century, is the best-preserved example of a planned Spanish colonial town in Asia. Its architecture reflects the coming together of cultural elements from elsewhere in the Philippines and from China with those of Europe to create a unique culture and townscape without parallel anywhere in East and Southeast Asia. The whole city of Vigan is inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List as the Historic City of Vigan.|||
|Miagao||Iloilo||This group of churches established a style of building and design that was adapted to the physical conditions in the Philippines and had an important influence on later church architecture in the region. The four churches are outstanding examples of the Philippine interpretation of the Baroque style, and represent the fusion of European church design and construction with local materials and decorative motifs to form a new church-building tradition. The municipality of Miagao is the location of one of the four Baroque Churches of the Philippines inscribed in the UNESCO World Heritage List.|||
Possible future sites and former tentative sites
|Natural: (ix)(x)||Hanunoo Ancestral Burial Caves in Southern Mindoro||Mindoro Oriental, Mindoro Occidental||The Hanunoo Mangyan of southern Mindoro practice a tradition called kutkot, where they bury the body of loved ones under the earth and retrieve only the bones after 6 months to 1 year. They then put the assemble the bones in fetal position on a cloth and dress the skeletons as if the ancestor is still alive. They then put it inside ancestral burial caves which have been used for hundreds of year, prior to Spanish colonization. These caves are the most historic indigenous sites in Mindoro island and have been the center of Hanunoo Mangyan culture for centuries. Some of the caves have been looted by lowland settlers in exchange for money from Japanese firms in 2009, but has since halted. No known ancestral burial cave have been conserved by the government from looting. Many of the caves are held as secrets from the public in fear that the caves would be looted again by lowland settlers or foreigners.|
|Natural: (ix)(x)||Agusan Marsh Wildlife Sanctuary||Agusan del Sur||Agusan Marsh is one of the most ecologically significant wetlands in the Philippines. Found in the heart of Mindanao's Agusan Basin, this vast expanse of marsh covers an area roughly the size of Metro Manila. It contains nearly 15% of the nation's fresh water resources in the form of swamp forests. The marshland acts like a sponge, as it is nestled in the midwaters of the Agusan River drainage basin. Within its lakes, several floating communities can be found. The sanctuary was home to the 20.24 feet (6.17 meter) saltwater crocodile Lolong, the world's largest captive crocodile.|||
|Cultural: (i)(iii)(vi)||Traditional Maranao Villages of Tugaya||Lanao del Sur||The town is known as the Industrial Capital of Lanao del Sur due to its Maranao crafts which includes gongs, drums, musical instruments, weaves, baskets, and metalwares, among others. It is also distinguished as a 'UNESCO Home for Culture and Heritage'. It is home to the unique kawayan torogon architectural style, which used to be widespread in the Lanao provinces, but has now been concentrated on Tugaya.|||
|Natural: (vii)(viii)(x)||Taal Volcano Protected Landscape||Batangas||is a complex volcano located on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. It is the second most active volcano in the Philippines with 33 historical eruptions. All of these eruptions are concentrated on Volcano Island, an island near the middle of Taal Lake. The lake partially fills Taal Caldera, which was formed by prehistoric eruptions between 140,000 and 5,380 BP. Viewed from Tagaytay Ridge, Taal Volcano and Lake presents one of the most picturesque and attractive views in the Philippines. It is classified as a Decade Volcano.|||
|Natural: (ix)(x)||Panglao Island Natural Biotic Area||Bohol||Panglao has a terrain that ranges from plain, hilly to mountainous. Panglao is made of Maribojoc limestone, the youngest of the limestone units found in the western area of Bohol. The limestone composition halted the development of an airport as coralline limestone is soluble which causes formation of caves and sinkholes. One interesting geological feature found in the island is the Hinagdanan Cave which has an underground water source. The cave is an important water source as the island has no rivers or lakes. The entire island is biologically rich in freshwater crab species found nowhere else.|||
|Cultural: (i)(ii)(iv)||San Sebastian Church||Manila||Completed in 1891, San Sebastian Church is noted for its architectural features. An example of the revival of Gothic architecture in the Philippines, it is the only all-steel church in the Philippines, and is the only prefabricated steel church in the world. It was designated as a National Historical Landmark by the Philippine government in 1973.|||
|Natural: (ix)(x)||Liguasan Marsh Wildlife Sanctuary||Central Mindanao||Liguasan Marsh is the main swampland of all rivers and tributaries of the Cotabato regions. The area is infamous for its biological diversity and the pristine state of its zones, collectively declared as a Key Biodiversity Area. The marsh also attracts hundreds of thousands of migratory birds annually.|||
|Natural: (x)||Mount Apo Natural Park||Davao del Sur||It has one of the highest land-based biological diversity in terms of flora and fauna per unit area. It has three distinct forest formations, from lowland tropical rainforest, to mid-mountain forests, and finally to high mountain forests. The mountain is home to over 272 bird species, 111 of which are endemic to the area. It is also home to one of the world's largest eagles, the critically endangered Philippine eagle, which is the country's national bird.|||
|Natural: (x)||Mount Matutum Protected Landscape||Davao del Sur South Cotabato||Matutum is a stratovolcano that rises 2,286 metres (7,500 ft) asl with a base diameter of 25 kilometres (16 mi). It has 2 hot springs, called Acmonan and Linan, 5.7 kilometres (3.5 mi) west-southwest of the volcano. Adjacent volcanic edifices are Landayao, Tampad, and Albulhek, which are all west of the volcano, and Magolo to the north. There is a well-preserved 320-metre (1,050 ft) wide crater at the volcano's summit. The crater is breached by three gorges and has a 120-metre (390 ft) deep, densely forested floor.|
|Natural: (x)||Mount Kitanglad National Park||Bukidnon||Mount Kitanglad is the fourth highest mountain in the Philippines and has an approximate height of 2,899 meters.[Note 1] It is located between Malaybalay City and the municipalities of Lantapan, Impasugong, Sumilao, and Libona. The name "Kitanglad" was derived from a legend that there was once a great flood that submerged the native lands of Bukidnon and only the tip of the mountain, the size of a "tanglad" (lemon grass), remained visible ("kita" in Visayan). It is considered as an ancestral domain of several old cultural communities like the Bukidnons, Higaonons and Talaandigs.|
|Mixed:||Buenavista Protected Landscape including the Kamhantik Limestone Tomb Ensemble||Quezon province||The Buenavista Protected Landscape is an important watershed crossed by several rivers and streams such as the Mulanay River, Taisan Creek and Mahanao Creek which empty into the Sibuyan Sea. It is centered on Mount Maclayao (also known as Mount Kamhantik), the municipality's highest peak which rises to 1,260 metres (4,130 ft) above sea level, in the sitio of Kamhantik in Barangay Buenavista. The protected area also contains several caves in the karst area extending to the village of Amuguis. On the forest-covered summit of Mount Maclayao in Sitio Kamhantik, at least 15 limestone coffins dating to approximately the 10th to the 14th century have been unearthed by Filipino archaeologists in 2012. According to the National Museum of the Philippines, the limestone coffins are "similar to ancient sarcophagus with round holes where wooden posts of houses or sheds may have stood" but the covers are missing, probably due to irresponsible treasure hunters during the Yamashita hype in the late 20th century. These rectangular tombs carved into limestone outcrops from the forest ground are said to be at least 1,000 years old based on US carbon dating tests carried out on a human tooth found in one of the graves. An ancient canal drainage system is also profound in the area, where some canals go under centuries-old balete trees. Numerous limestone coffins are also located under centuries-old trees. In addition, archaeologists have also discovered shards of earthen jars, metal objects, and bone fragments of humans, monkeys, wild pigs, and other animals in the tombs.|
|Natural||Northwest Panay Peninsula Natural Park||Aklan, Antique||The Northwest Panay Peninsula Natural Park has an area of 120.09 km2 found within the municipalities of Libertad and Pandan in Antique and Nabas, Malay and Buruanga in Aklan. Proclaimed a natural park on 18 April 2002 (Presidential Proclamation No. 186, 2002). Home to a wide range of endemic flora and fauna such as Visayan Warty Pig, Visayan Spotted Deer, Negros Bleeding-heart Dove, Blue-naped Parrot, Visayan Hornbill, Walden's Hornbill, Panay Monitor and Little Golden-mantled Flying Fox.|
|Natural: (x)||Mount Kalatungan National Park||Bukidnon||Mount Kalatungan, also known as Catatungan, is a volcanic mountain located in the province of Bukidnon in the southern Philippines. It is a stratovolcano with no known historical eruptions and classified by the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) as a potentially active volcano. It is the sixth highest mountain in the country with an elevation of 2,824 m (9,265 ft) asl. It is one of the several high elevation peaks in the Kalatungan Mountain Range in Bukidnon on the island of Mindanao, the second largest island in the Philippines.|
|Mixed:||Sitangkai-Sibutu Protected Landscape and Seascape||Tawi-Tawi||The site is called the "Venice of the Philippines" [according to whom?] due to the use of boats as primary transportation, although footbridges connect one house from another. The major sources of livelihood are fishing and farming, although there is very sparse agricultural land available. The collective expanse of the area is extremely biodiverse. It has been classified as a Key Biodiversity due to its rare genetic mix of Philippine-Sulu and Bornean flora and fauna, the only known ecological frontier to possess such a mix of species. The area is also the place where the first ever mosque in the Philippines was constructed. The original pillars of the mosque are still intact.|
|Cultural:||Archaeological and Ecological Landscape and Seascape of Ticao||Masbate||Ticao island is known as an archaeological landscape, possessing thousands of pre-colonial artifacts such as the Baybayin-inscripted Rizal Stone, Ticao gold spike teeth, Burial jars of varrying designs and sizes, jade beads, human face rock statues, and the Ticao petrographs.Much of the homes in Ticao island use these archaeological finds to design their interiors. The island is also an ecological frontier for the conservation of manta rays. The island also possesses a 'rare subspecies' of Visayan warty pig that is almost near extinction.|
|Natural:||Dinagat Islands Protected Landscape and Seascape||Dinagat Islands||The Dinagat Islands is one of the most environmentally-significant provinces in the Philippines, where endemism of fauna is unique in its region. Animals that are endemic to the province include the critically endangered Dinagat bushy-tailed cloud rat which was recently rediscovered after decades of disappearance, the endangered Dinagat hairy-tailed rat, Dinagat Gymnure which has been declared by the EDGE Species Programme of the Zoological Society of London as one of the top 100 most evolutionary distinct and globally endangered species in the world, and a strange sub-species of the Philippine Tarsier which is unusually larger and darker in color than the common Philippine tarsier. The province is highly forested and is considered as a Key Biodiversity Area by Haribon Foundation and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources of the Philippines because of its unique fauna and flora, along with its lush rainforest which are classified as primary forests, or forests which have never been fully obliterated since pre-colonial times.|
|Cultural:||Baroque Church of Baclayon||Bohol|
|Cultural:||Historic Town Centre and Church of Maragondon||Cavite||Founded in 1611, the church complex underwent massive renovations in 1630, 1633, 1646, 1649, 1650, 1666, 1672, 1687, 1714, and 1860, leading to the current architectural fort state of the church complex. The town centre of Maragondon was focused on the architectural marvel of the church complex, making the two inseparable works of indio artistry during the Spanish colonial period.|
|Natural:||Sierra Madre Rainforest Complex (Extension to Northern Sierra Madre National Park tentative site)||Cagayan, Isabela, Quirino, Nueva Viscaya, Aurora, Nueva Ecija, Bulacan, Rizal, Laguna, and Quezon province|
|Cultural:||Historic City of Malolos||Bulacan||Malolos was the site of the constitutional convention of 1898, known as the Malolos Convention, that led to the establishment of the First Philippine Republic, at the sanctuary of the Barasoain Church. The convent of the Malolos Cathedral served as the presidential palace at that time. Malolos gave birth to the first constitutional republic in Asia.|
|Natural:||Donsol Whale Shark Congregation Seascape||Sorsogon||The waters of Donsol is internationally known as the center of the center of worldwide whale shark migratory routes, possessing the largest congregation of whale sharks in the world during migration. There is no other site on the planet where such numbers of whale sharks congregate in one location.|
|Cultural:||Old Town Centre and Church of Dauis including the Dauis Watchtower||Bohol||The church and watchtower were founded in the 18th century, during which Spanish forces were at the near end of their occupation in the Philippines. The town's architectural marvels symbolizes the end of the Spanish regime in the Philippines and the rebirth of the nation in the Visayas.|
|Cultural:||Old Town Centre of Taytay including the Fuerza de Sta. Isabel||Palawan|
|Cultural:||Old Town Centre of Romblon Municipality including Fuerza de San Andres||Romblon|
|Cultural:||Historic Fort Town of Capul including the Fuerza de Capul||Northern Samar||Founded in 1596 by the Jesuits, it the only town with a majority of the rare Inakbanon language speakers. The town became the focal transition between the Manila-Acapulco galleon trade from the 16th to 18th centuries. A fort town, much of the architecture of the town is based on protection against Moro raiders coming from as far as Mindanao.|
|Cultural:||Old Town Centre of Maribojoc including the Punta Cruz Watchtower||Bohol|
|Cultural:||Traditional Kalinga Villages of Lubuagan||Kalinga||The traditional villages of Lubuagan are the 'epicenter' of Kalinga culture and arts. The house complexes of each villages is unique as they possess the only known octagonal-shaped indigenous houses in the country.|
|Cultural:||Historic City of Dapitan||Zamboanga del Norte|
|Cultural:||Historic Town of Baler||Aurora||The first settlement in Baler was made a Spanish pueblo in 1609 and was declared a town by in 1658. The town is historically known as the last stronghold of Spanish forces in Luzon, and later the last stronghold of Filipino forces against the Americans in Central Luzon. The town is dotted with heritage buildings from the Spanish and American periods, notably its fort church which served as one of the strongest base of the Philippine revolution in northern Luzon.|
|Cultural:||Old Town of Sariaya||Quezon province||With more than a hundred cultural properties and ancestral houses mostly built in Art Deco architecture within the municipality, Sariaya is bestowed the titles, Heritage Town of Quezon and Art Deco Capital of Southern Luzon. The entire town encompasses well-preserved heritage structures from all areas, with much of its environment in good shape – a testimony of cultural conservation benefiting the environment.|
|Cultural: (x)||Old Town of Carcar||Cebu||The town was first known as Sialao during pre-colonial times. It was changed into Carcar in 1599 after Spanish forces captured the town from the indigenous Cebuanos. Since then, a church complex, town center, and numerous ancestral houses were established, along with a Spanish-Cebuano cultural diasphora.|
|Cultural:||Old Centre of Cebu including the Basilica Minore del Santo Niño, Magellan's Cross, and Colon Street||Cebu||The old centre of Cebu was founded in the 1565 by Frays Andrés de Urdaneta, O.S.A. and Diego de Herrera, O.S.A. through the Basilica of Cebu, the oldest Roman Catholic church in the country. Built on the spot where the image of the Santo Niño de Cebú was found during the expedition of Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, the locals revered the image as a water deity which begain in 1521 when it was first given by Ferdinand Magellan. The ancestral houses, town plaza, and numerous heritage streets such as Colon followed suit until the end of the Spanish period in the late 19th century.|
|Cultural:||Baroque Church of Daraga and the Cagsawa Ruins||Albay||The first settlement was in Cagsawa. However, in fear of Mount Mayon's eruptions, the residents moved to the location of the current Daraga Church. The church was built by the Franciscans in 1772 under the patronage of the Our Lady of the Gate. The church in Cagsawa was then engulfed by a catastrophic volcanic eruption, destroying the old church and its belfry and later becoming the Cagsawa Ruins. Certain church sections were declared as a National Cultural Treasure of the Philippines in 2007.|
|Cultural:||Baroque Church and Ruins of Barcelona||Sorsogon|
|Natural:||Malapascua Thresher Shark Reserve||Cebu||The waters around Malapascua island possesses the densest concentration of endangered thresher sharks in the world, making it an ecological hotspot. The waters are rich in other marine species, causing the massive congregation of native sharks in the area. No other site is known to possess such complex congregation.|
|Cultural:||Historic Centre of Zamboanga City including its fortifications and sea village settlements||Zamboanga City||Known as Asia's Latin City, Zamboanga City used to be known as Samboangan in historical records. It was founded by the Subanen people during pre-Hispanic times. After independence from Spain in May 1899, Zamboanga became the Republic of Zamboanga with Chavacano as its official language and Spanish as its co-official language. After American armed intervention, the republic was incorporated into their Philippines colony and became the capital of the Moro Province, now Mindanao, from 1903 to 1913. On October 12, 1936, Zamboanga City became a chartered city under Commonwealth Act No. 39. It was inaugurated on February 26, 1937, which was declared a local holiday.|
|Cultural:||Historic Church of Quiapo||Manila||The Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene is a prominent Roman Catholic Latin-rite basilica located in the District of Quiapo in the City of Manila, Philippines. Founded prior to 1588, the basilica is the famous home for the shrine of the Black Nazarene, a dark statue of Jesus Christ many claim to be miraculous. The church is also the main end point of the biggest religious festival in the Philippines. The parish is under the Archdiocese of Manila.|
|Cultural:||Santa Ana Church Heritage Zone||Manila||The Santa Ana Church, also known as the Parish of Our Lady of the Abandoned (Spanish: Parroquia de Nuestra Señora de los Desamparados), is a Spanish colonial period church located in the district of Santa Ana in Manila, Philippines. The parish was established by the Franciscan missionaries in 1578 under the patronage of Saint Anne. The present stone church was constructed by Father Vicente Inglés, OFM from 1720 to 1725 and was dedicated to its present patron, the Our Lady of the Abandoned. The revered image of its patron was made in Valencia,Spain in 1713 and arrived in the Philippines in 1717. The church houses two National Cultural Treasures declared by the National Museum of the Philippines; the Santa Ana Site Museum located in the convent patio and the Camarín de la Virgen (Dressing Room of the Virgin).|
|Cultural:||Grand Mosque of Cotabato||Cotabato City||The mosque, also known as the Sultan Haji Hassanal Bolkiah Masjid, is the largest Islamic religious structure in the country and one of the largest in the world. Built under the guidance of the Sultan of Brunei, the mosque is a vivid symbol of the historical ties of the Philippines and Brunei, from pre-colonial times up to the modern era.|
|Cultural:||Historic Campus of the Silliman University and the Old Centre of Dumaguete||Negros Oriental||The old centre of Dumaguete was founded as the Spanish center for eastern Negros island. During the American period, the city centre evolved into a university town and becoming the home of Silliman University, which now encompass one of the oldest and best preserved American colonial-era structures and landscapes in Asia.|
|Cultural:||Samal Island Bat Reserves||Samal|
|Cultural:||Old Town Centre and Baroque Church of Gapan||Nueva Ecija||Founded in 1595 as a bamboo chapel, it was formally completed in its present state in 1872 after almost two decades of baroque-style church construction. The church complex is the epicenter of Philippine Marian processions from April to May as declared by the Catholic Bishops Conference in 1986. The church is historical in the sense that it was one of the capitals of the First Philippine Republic during the Philippine-American War.|
|Mixed:||Sagada Anthropologic and Ecologic Valley||Mountain Province|
|Cultural:||Baroque Church of Tondo||Manila||Santo Niño de Tondo Church is a Roman Catholic church in Tondo, Manila established by the Augustinians. It houses an image of the Infant Jesus which originally came from Acapulco, Mexico and was handed over by a wealthy merchant to the Archbishop of Manila at that time, who later turned it over to the parish priest of Tondo, Manila. Since 1572, its foundation, the image of Santo Niño has been enshrined in this church.|
|Natural:||Mount Bangbanglang Range National Park||Kalinga, Abra|
|Cultural:||Historic Centre of Cabanatuan||Nueva Ecija||The historic centre of Cabanatuan, composed of the old kapitolyo, the town plaza, and various heritage buildings is a turning point in Philippine history. The site became the capital of the First Philippine Republic in its war with the United States. It is also the site where the Philippine defense secretary, Juan Luna, was murdered, causing a massive decline in the Philippine forces' strategic war tactics against the Americans, leading to the President Aguinaldo's eventual capture in Isabela.|
|Cultural:||Maitum Archaeological Caves||Sarangani||The Maitum cave complex is highly regarded as a bastion for archaeological research in pre-colonial times, dating back to at least 190BC. The main component of the site are the Maitum Anthropomorphic Potteries which have been declared as National Cultural Treasures of the Philippines.|
|Cultural:||Historic City of Baguio||Baguio City|
|Cultural:||Baroque Church of Pan-ay||Capiz||The Santa Monica Parish Church is a historic church in Panay, near Roxas City in the province of Capiz, on Panay island in the Western Visayas region of the Philippines. It was built in 1884 on the site of an earlier church, built in 1774 by Miguel Murguia, which was gravely damaged by the typhoon of 17 January 1875. The church is built of coral blocks and is approximately 70 metres long, 25 m in width and 18 m in height; the walls are about 3 metres thick. The church has an unusually large bell, the largest in the country. This was cast by Juan Reina in about 1884, using sacks of coin given by the people of the town; it weighs more than 10 tonnes.:423 In 1997 the church was declared a National Historical Landmark by the National Historical Commission of the Philippines.|
|Cultural:||Historic Centre of Iloilo||Iloilo||It received its present name from the province's original Irong-Irong reference. It was founded as La Punta, and inhabited in 1602 when Spanish and Chinese residents from Jaro and Molo expanded their territorial area. he district is the home to the main government building of the Province of Iloilo, the Iloilo provincial capital and the seat of the city government, the Iloilo City Hall. Other main agencies of the government is also located at the city proper. Its main thoroughfares are J.M. Basa St. (Calle Real), Iznart St., Gen. Luna St. and Ledesma St.|
|Cultural:||Heritage Zone of Jaro including the Jaro Cathedral||Iloilo||The shrine is constructed in the Romanesque Revival style, deviating from semi-circular arches. A distinctive feature is that the bell tower is located across a busy street from the church, on Jaro Plaza, resembling Ilocos churches. Typically, belfries are built next to their churches. In this case, the tower was adjacent to an earlier church, but an earthquake destroyed the church and left the tower. Another distinctive feature is the stairs attached to the front facade of the cathedral, over the main entrance, leading up to a shrine featuring a statue of Our Lady of the Candles, as can be see in the picture at the top of this article. The church also possesses relics of St. Josemaría Escrivá. The heritage zone also includes various ancestral houses and the Jaro belfry.|
|Cultural:||Heritage Centre of Molo including the Parish of Saint Anne||Iloilo||Molo was a separate town before it was merged into Iloilo City in 1937. It was originally the parián of Iloilo, the area that all Chinese residents must live. Molo is the home to the historic Molo Church, officially the Church of St. Anne Parish, which lies in front of the plaza. The national high school of the city, Iloilo City National High School is located in Molo. The Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) and Bureau of Internal Revenue (BIR) are among the government agencies with regional offices in Molo.|
|Cultural:||Historic Centre of Arevalo||Iloilo||It was founded as La Villa Rica de Arévalo by a group of Spanish soldiers and their commanding officer who built his mansion along the coastal settlement in the 16th century. It was absorbed by Iloílo City during the 20th century along with the towns of Mandurriao, La Paz, Molo and the city of Jaro. Its church possesses the third oldest Santo Niño (Infant Jesus) figurines in the Philippines. Arevalo is sometimes given the title "Flower Capital of Iloilo",where potted plants, flowers, bouquets, wreaths can be bought.|
|Cultural:||Historic Campus of the University of Santo Tomas||Manila|
|Cultural:||Old Town Centre and Baroque Church of Cuyo||Palawan|
|Natural:||Sibuyan Island Ecological Landscape and Seascape||Romblon|
|Cultural:||Old Town of Taal||Batangas|
|Cultural:||Camiguin Natural and Cultural Landscape and Seascape||Camiguin|
|Cultural:||Historic Centre of Marawi including the Mindanao State University campus||Lanao del Sur|
|Cultural:||Old Centre and Baroque Church of Liliw||Laguna|
|Cultural:||Historic town of Kawit including the Aguinaldo Shrine and St. Mary Magdalene Church||Cavite|
|Cultural:||Old Centre of Calamba and the Rizal Ancestral House||Laguna|
|Mixed:||Lake Sebu T'boli Natural and Cultural Landscape||South Cotabato|
|Natural:||Babuyan Islands Key Biodiversity Area||Cagayan|
|Natural:||Hinatuan Sacred Grounds||Surigao del Sur|
|Natural:||Mount Makiling National Park||Laguna|
|Natural:||Mount Arayat National Park||Pampanga|
|Mixed:||Old Centre of Argao and its mountain environs||Cebu|
|Cultural:||Heritage City of Bacolod||Negros Occidental|
|Cultural:||Old City of Silay||Negros Occidental|
|Cultural:||Old City of Cadiz||Negros Occidental|
|Mixed:||Asia-Europe Contact: Heritage Island of Homonhon||Eastern Samar|
|Natural:||Sohotan National Park||Samar, Eastern Samar, Northern Samar|
|Cultural:||Las Casas Filipinas de Acuzar||Bataan|
|Cultural:||Corregidor Island Historic Landscape||Cavite||The island of Corregidor encompasses numerous war tunnels and ruins brought by World War II. It was the site of one of the bloodiest battles of modern times in the Philippines which fought against imperial Japanese invaders. The island itself was used since the Spanish era as a base for their military against invaders due to its strategic location at the mouth of Manila Bay. Massive structures exist on the island, showcasing the memories of war.|
|Natural:||Maripipi Islands Key Biodiversity Area||Biliran|
|Cultural:||Historic Pineapple Plantations of Bukidnon||Bukidnon|
|Cultural:||Old Centre of Cagayan de Oro||Cagayan de Oro|
|Cultural:||Monastery of Transfiguration in Malaybalay||Bukidnon|
|Natural:||Mount Latian Range Key Biodiversity Area||Davao Occidental, Sarangani|
|Natural:||Mount Hilong-Hilong National Park||Agusan del Norte, Agusan de Sur|
|Natural:||Biri Larosa Protected Landscape and Seascape||Northern Samar|
|Natural:||Mount Kanlaon Natural Park||Negros Occidental, Negros Oriental|
|Natural:||Ancient Lake Lanao||Lanao del Sur|
|Natural:||Balabac Islands Wildlife Reserves||Palawan|
|Natural:||Biliran Island Rainforest and Inland Waterways Complex||Biliran|
|Cultural:||Ensemble of the Malacañan Palace||Manila|
|Natural:||Basilan Rainforest Complex||Basilan|
|Cultural:||Old Town of Jolo||Sulu|
|Cultural:||Old Town of Bolinao||Pangasinan||The already had indigenous settlements prior to the founding of the Spanish town of Bolinao. The town is a key point in Spanish navigation of the Pangasinan peninsula, as it hosts the Bolinao Lighthouse. The main centre of the town is composed of the Bolinao Church and various ancestral houses which have been adaptive reuse since the end of the Spanish regime. The most notably sites in the town are its cave systems where the Bolinao Skull was found. The skull, dating back to the 14th century, were engraved with gold that were intricately designed to resemble fish scales.|
|Cultural:||Baroque Church of Manaoag||Pangasinan||Founded in 1600 during the advent of the new century, the Manaoag Church has been regarded as one of the most miraculous churches in all of the Philippines. Various murals and heritage objects inside the church have been designated as miraculous pieces of Christianity by the locals. The parish encompassing Manaoag and the surrounding towns is administered by the Order of Preachers under the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Lingayen-Dagupan.|
|Natural:||Candaba Swamp Wildlife Preserve||Pampanga||Candaba Swamp is located in the Candaba, Pampanga municipality, 60 km northeast of Manila in the Philippines. It encompasses about 32,000 ha, made of freshwater ponds, swamps and marshes surrounded by seasonally flooded grasslands. The entire area becomes submerged underwater during the wet season. It dries out during the months of November to April. Then the swamp is converted to farmland by the locals. Watermelon and rice are usually planted, comprising the vegetation of the floodplain, together with patches of Nipa palm and some mangrove species. The Candaba swamp also acts as a natural flood retention basin during the rainy season. It attracts hundreds of thousands of migratory birds each year.|
|Natural:||Siargao Islands||Surigao del Norte||Siargao Islands are a group of islands known for its surfs. The east coast is relatively straight with one deep inlet, Port Pilar. The coastline is marked by a succession of reefs, small points and white, sandy beaches. The landscape itself is jagged and contains numerous well-preserve land forms and floral domains.|
|Natural:||Mount Busa Range National Park||South Cotabato||Mount Busa is the main watershed zone of Southwest Cotabato. It is the main water source of Lake Sebu and one of the main water sources of Liguasan Marsh. It stands 2,030 meters, bestowing it with numerous flora and fauna such as the Philippine Eagle, kulugo, Philippine tarsier, and hundreds of threatened species that are well-protected in its vicinity.|
|Cultural:||Masjid Dimaukom and the Old Centre of Datu Saudi Ampatuan||Maguindanao||The Masjid Dimaukom or Pink Mosque is a mosque in Datu Saudi Ampatuan, Maguindanao, the Philippines. The mosque was painted pink to symbolize peace and love and was built by workmen to symbolize unity and inter-faith brotherhood. The mosque, since its completion, has been a center for religious activities in all of Mindanao.|
|Cultural:||Historic Royal Centre of Maimbung||Sulu||The town hosted the Daru Jambangan (Palace of Flowers) which was the royal palace of the Sultan of Sulu since historical times. The palace was made of wood, and was destroyed in 1932 by a huge storm. Today, a few arches and posts remain from the once grand palace complex. Many members of the royal family advocated for the reconstruction of the palace, and even its enlargement, however, the government of the Philippines has yet to establish a position or a fund for the matter. The town was officially cited by the late Sultan Jamalul Kiram III of the Sultanate of Sulu as the capital of the sultanate, and the place where he wished he was buried after death. The late sultan died in 2013 and was buried in the town afterwards. The town hosts a school named after the late sultan.|
|Cultural:||Old City of Tayabas||Quezon province||Tayabas is known for lambanog (coconut arrack) and sweet food/delicacies, as well as tourism resorts. Tayabas is also known as the City of Festivals because of its colorful festivals. The city is famous for resorts, heritage houses, historical landmarks, rest and recreation destination and festivities. It possesses one of the vastest diaspora of colonial architecture in the Philippines. It is the former capital of the Province of Tayabas, now Aurora and Quezon.|
|Cultural:||Old Centre of Laoag||Ilocos Norte||Laoag is the capital of Ilocos Norte. It is the province's political, commercial, and industrial hub and it is one of the few economic cities in the Philippines that has preserved its colonial structures, notably, the Laoag Cathedral.|
|Cultural:||Binondo||Manila||It is the oldest Chinatown in the world, established in 1594 by the Spaniards as a settlement near Intramuros but across the Pasig River for Catholic Chinese, it was positioned so that colonial rulers could keep a close eye on their migrant subjects. It was already a hub of Chinese commerce even before the Spanish colonial period. Binondo is the center of commerce and trade of Manila, where all types of business run by Filipino-Chinese thrive. The Binondo Church is the centre of the entire district.|
|Cultural:||Old Centre and Cemetery of Nagcarlan||Laguna||The old centre and cemetery of Nagcarlan was a turning point in the history of the Philippine Revolution against Spain. The area was used by Katipuneros as a base for its strategic alliances and strategy formulations. The old centre and cemetery have been preserved by the townfolks to remind the nation of its importance during the revolution for independence.|
|Cultural:||Old Centre of Oton and its Death Mask Caves||Iloilo||Oton is the location of the Death Mask Caves, where masks made of gold were found. The masks predates precolonial times and have confirmed the existence of a death mask ritual prior to Spanish colonization in the Philippines. The town is also the site of numerous revolts against Spanish rule. It formally hosted the gigantic Oton Cathedral which was destroyed by a 1981 earthquake. The original cathedral has yet to be rebuilt.|
|Mixed:||Semirara Key Biodiversity Area and Former Mining Town at Caluya municipality||Antique||Semirara island has been classified as a key biodiversity area, notably for its giant clams which have been endangered for decades. The island formerly hosted a mine that has much decimated its terrestrial environment and has become the primary symbol of the ecological movements against mining in Philippine modern history.|
|Cultural:||Capital Heritage Town of Romblon||Romblon||Founded in 1571, the town of Romblon is one of the earliest towns founded by the Spanish in the Philippines. It predates Spanish Manila. The town is known for its preserved Spanish-style structures made of stone and wood and its well-crafted marble industry which has been its lifeblood since the 16th century.|
|Mixed:||Jintotolo Channel and Jintotolo Island and Lighthouse||Masbate||Jintotolo Channel is a diverse seascape, used by thousands of manta rays throughout the year. The channel is also home to the Jintotolo island which hosts the Jintotolo lighthouse, a structure built during Spanish times.|
|Cultural:||Traditional Manuvu Villages of Bukidnon||Bukidnon||The traditional Manuvu villages of northern Bukidnon exemplifies the indigenous architectural and landscaping pattern of the Manuvu people which have adapted to the highland and forest domains of the area.|
|Mixed:||Ancestral Domains and Sacred Mountains of the Blaan people||South Cotabato, Sultan Kudarat||The B'laan used to have a huge expanse of domains throughout the Cotabato region, however, during the martial law period, migration from Luzon and the Visayas was imposed by the government to negate any separatist majority-movements in Mindanao. The move affected lowland dwellers like the B'laan. The current ancestral domains and sacred mountains of the B'laan are highly guarded due to past experiences and have been considered by other ethnic groups as sacred and secretive.|
|Natural:||Giant Woodworms Sanctuary in Kalamansig||Sultan Kudarat||The tamilok is the largest woodworm of shipworm species in the world. Unlike other woodworms, it does not live inside wood or mongroves, but instead, survived by establishing its own tube-like shell through enzymes and standing its shell on the muddy ocean floor. It is an endangered species and is found nowhere else but in Kalamansig in Sultan Kudarat.|
|Cultural:||San Juanico Bridge and its Philippine Truss Design||Leyte, Samar||San Juanico Bridge is part of the Pan-Philippine Highway and stretches from Samar to Leyte across the San Juanico Strait in the Philippines. Its longest length is a steel girder viaduct built on reinforced concrete piers, and its main span is of an arch-shaped truss design. With a total length of 2.16 kilometers (1.34 mi), it is the longest bridge in the Philippines spanning a body of seawater.|
|Cultural:||Old Centre of Tayum||Abra||Tayum has been established prior to Spanish colonization. In the early 17th century, Spanish missionaries came to the area and imposed Spanish landscaping in par with the indigenous Itneg people's natural setting. The intermix of the two cultures established the current form of Tayum, where numerous Spanish-style structures are present, however, the Itneg styles are predominant – a rare sight in Ilokano-influenced areas.|
|Cultural:||Heritage Centre of Piat, Cagayan including the Basilica of Our Lady of Piat||Cagayan||Piat has long been a Roman Catholicism center in North Luzon. The Basilica Minore of Our Lady of Piat is one of only 12 minor basilicas in the Philippines. It is distinguished as the home to the venerated Black Virgin Mary. The interiors is of curved ceiling made of wood with historical images and accounts at the top of the walls. On the altar lies the Blessed Virgin Mary covered with a glass. There are also verandas inside the church which makes the shrine elegant. At the back of the church are staircase leading to a window exactly located at the back of the Virgin Mary wherein devotees can touch the dress of Our Lady.|
|Cultural:||Basilica Minore of Our Lady of Charity and related heritage structures in Agoo||La Union||Established in 1578, Agoo used to be an economic influx centre for crafts from China, as proved by the numerous potteries and ceramics found by the Spanish in the 16th century. The Basilica Minore of Our Lady of Charity, finished in 1978, is noted for its Mexican-Baroque architectural features. A rosette stained glass window upon the Basilica's facade is a marked contrast to the gray color of the front wall. Amid the statues of Saints Peter and Paul statues at the main door are carved Hebrew scripts, which is a short form of the Ten Commandments.|
|Natural:||Hundred Islands National Park||Pangasinan||The Hundred Islands National Park (Pangasinan: Kapulo-puloan or Taytay-Bakes) is a national park in the Philippines. The protected area is located in the city of Alaminos, in the province of Pangasinan in northern Philippines. The islands, totaling 124 at low tide and 123 at high tide, are scattered in Lingayen Gulf covering an area of 16.76 square kilometres (6.47 sq mi). Dugongs, palm civets, geckos, native and migratory birds, sea and land snakes, olive ridley sea trutles, green sea turtles, Fraser's dolphins, and numerous coastal marine fishes abound within the park.|
|Cultural:||Baroque Church of Peñaranda and the Town Centre||Nueva Ecija||The town is the cultural center of Nueva Ecija, as it is the birthplace of the "Araquio", a re-enactment of Christians' quest led by Queen Helena and King Constantine for the Holy Cross where Jesus Christ was nailed. Actors and actresses garbed in colorful and cute costumes dramatize this century old tradition which features sword fights between the Christians and Moors. The town's church and town centre are the iconic symbolisms of the Araquio (Arakyo), which has been declared as an Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Philippines.|
|Cultural:||Baroque Church of Dupax del Sur||Nueva Viscaya||The San Vicente Ferrer Parish Church is an 18th-century Baroque church located at Brgy. Dopaj, Dupax del Sur, Nueva Vizcaya, Philippines. The parish church, under the advocation of Saint Vincent Ferrer, is under the jurisdiction of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Bayombong. The church complex has been declared a National Cultural Treasure by the National Museum of the Philippines in July 2001.|
|Cultural:||Historic Hacienda Luisita||Tarlac||is a sugar plantation located in the province of Tarlac, Philippines, that was bought by the Cojuangco family from the Compañía General de Tabacos de Filipinas. The hacienda spans various municipalities in the province, including the capital Tarlac City. The hacienda, which was derived from the servant-master scheme of hacienderos as imposed during the Spanish period, served as the agrarian reform symbol of farmers and peasants' rights during the 20th century. The site is much acclaimed as well as the triggering mechanism for the rise of communism in the country during the middle 1900's. The site remains controversial due to the political field it embroils in.|
|Cultural:||Tarlac Cathedral||Tarlac||Established in 1686, the cathedral is one of the oldest Roman Catholic structures in Central Luzon and one of the oldest Gothic churches in the country. The first parochial building of Tarlac is attributed to Father Agustin Barriocanal in 1740. Later on, in 1872, a wood and stone church was erected by Father Baltasar Gamarra. Construction of the said structure lasted until 1875 by Father Tomas Fito and was completed by Father Fermin Sardon in 1890. The finished church was said to have been identical to the church of Concepcion. The church was completely destroyed during the war, in 1945. It was later rebuilt into the present-day church structure.|
|Cultural:||Historic Sites and Monuments on the Bataan Death March||Bataan, Pampanga, Tarlac||The Bataan Death March was the forcible transfer by the Imperial Japanese Army of 60,000–80,000 Filipino and American prisoners of war from Saisaih Point, Bagac, Bataan and Mariveles to Camp O'Donnell, Capas, Tarlac, via San Fernando, Pampanga, where the prisoners were loaded onto trains. The transfer began on April 9, 1942, after the three-month Battle of Bataan in the Philippines during World War II. The total distance marched from Mariveles to San Fernando and from the Capas Train Station to Camp O'Donnell is variously reported by differing sources as between 96.6 and 112.0 km (60 and 69.6 mi). Differing sources also report widely differing prisoner of war casualties prior to reaching Camp O'Donnell: from 5,000 to 18,000 Filipino deaths and 500 to 650 American deaths during the march. The march was characterized by severe physical abuse and wanton killings, and was later judged by an Allied military commission to be a Japanese war crime. Numerous monuments have been established to forever remember this atrocity during the second world war.|
|Cultural:||Historic Railways and Rail stations in the Philippines||Ilocos Norte, Ilocos Sur, La Union, Pangasinan, Tarlac, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Bulacan, Metro Manila, Laguna, Cavite, Batangas, Quezon province, Camarines Sur, Albay, Cebu, Negros Oriental, Negros Occidental, Iloilo, Capiz||The railways and rail stations of the Philippines was the precursor of the immense economic growth of the nation during the Spanish regimes and the American period. It also triggered the advancements and strategic establishment of the Philippine Revolution against Spain and the Philippine Revolution against the Americans. The rail sites are historic in context as the routes were used by the First Philippine Republic, the Filipino forces aginst the Japanese during World War II, and the Negros Republic.|
|Cultural:||Kawayan Torogan and nearby heritage village-style structures in Marantao||Lanao del Sur||A torogan, which literally translates as "a place for sleeping", is the stately house of elite members of the Maranao tribe in the province of Lanao del Sur in the island of Mindanao, Philippines. As the house of the datu or sultan, it is a symbol of status and leadership. It is known for its traditional vernacular architecture, the pre-Islamic style tracing to Indian architectural influence; and has been called "the prime example of the architectural genius of Filipinos". This style of great-house has a single large hall with no permanent partitions and is divided only into sleeping areas under a widely flaring, ridged roof. Its dominant feature is the unique floor end beams, known as panolongs, which have butterfly-shaped projections and are carved alternately with the traditional Maranao symbols of niaga or naga (serpent or dragon) and pako rabong armalis (asymmetrical growing fern). Unique designs through carvings and paintings are also found on the house's facade panels and interior posts. It is built above the ground using massive tree trunks on rounded boulders as a measure against earthquake, wood rot and infestation of termites. It also includes the gibon or paga known as the room of the datu's daughter; the bilik, a hiding place at the back of the sultan's headboard. Entrance is usually located near the datu's bed. Torogan also serves as a courthouse and hall for community meetings and its courtyard as ritual areas for weddings and coronations. It also embodies the height of the okir decorative tradition. It was declared a National Cultural Treasure of the Philippines in 2008.||-style="vertical-align:top;"|
|Cultural:||Balobok Rock Shelter Archaeological Site in Bongao, Tawi-Tawi||Tawi-Tawi||The site is one of the earliest human settlement zones in the entire Southeast Asian region. The site itself is part of a huge karst system with layers of shells and other minerals made by early humans. More excavation led to discovery of ancient artifacts like flake tools, polished stones, earthenware shards, bone tools and some animal remains. These remains and artifacts were dated by C-14 to be around 8,810 to 5,190 years ago, making the site of the most significant archaeological sites in the region. The site was declared an Important Cultural Property in 2017 by the National Government.||-style="vertical-align:top;"|
Both Guiuan Church of Eastern Samar and Loboc Church of Bohol, despite being heavily damaged by the Bohol earthquake and Supertyphoon Haiyan in 2013, are still considered part of the Philippines' UNESCO Tentative List as part of the Five churches in the 'Baroque Churches of the Philippines (Extension)'. Baclayon Church of Bohol, on the other hand, was almost completely destroyed and suffered the worst destruction of a National Cultural Treasure through natural calamity. It is being restored, like all other heritage sites affected by the series of calamities in 2013, by the National Museum of the Philippines. The Maranao Settlement of Tugaya was suggested by UNESCO to be submitted in the future by the Philippines as a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage instead. Mount Apo Natural Park, Panglao Island, and Taal Volcano Protected Landscape were removed from the Tentative List because their original features, as stated in the submissions, do not show their current features due to the massive disturbances in the park. Resubmitting the sites through revision of its features is a possible move to gain back their Tentative status. The Angono Petroglyphs have been formally infused in the UNESCO Tentative site of 'Petroglyphs and Petrographs of the Philippines', which includes four other sites from all over the country. San Sebastian Church of Manila, Spanish Colonial Fortifications of the Philippines, Agusan Marsh Wildlife Sanctuary, Liguasan Marsh, Mount Matutum Protected Landscape, and Mount Kitanglad undergo a stringent process upon review; and some would have a hard time meeting the criteria set by the World Heritage Committee (WHC). Due to this, they were removed from the list. Bulking Mount Matutum with other national parks in south central Mindanao, like Indonesia did for their Tropical Rainforest of Sumatra nomination bid, is recommended. Similar nominations to bulk national parks in north central Mindanao, eastern Mindanao, eastern Visayas, the Philippine Cordilleras, northern Sierra Madre, southern Sierra Madre, Panay-Negros, Zambales-Bataan, Sulu faunal region, and other rainforest cluster regions in the country are also recommended.
Notable sites that may be submitted in the tentative list also include the Buenavista Protected Landscape including the Limestone Tombs of Kamhantik in Quezon province, the Maitum Anthropological Caves of Sarangani, the Saludnon (Panay-Bukidnon) Rice Terraces and Rainforest Complex in Antique, the Sitangkai-Sibutu Protected Landscape and Seascape in Tawi-tawi, the Old Town of Lubuagan and its Environs in Kalinga, the Archaeological and Ecological Landscape and Seascape of Ticao Island in Masbate, the Lake Sebu T'boli Cultural and Natural Landscape in South Cotabato, and the Old Fort Town of Capul in Northern Samar. Indigenous village architectural landscapes have also been regarded as 'possible UNESCO sites' as they are in line with other UNESCO Heritage Sites just like the traditional villages of Japan and Europe.
UNESCO Global Geoparks in the Philippines
UNESCO Global Geoparks are single, unified geographical areas where sites and landscapes of international geological significance are managed with a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable development. A UNESCO Global Geopark uses its geological heritage, in connection with all other aspects of the area's natural and cultural heritage, to enhance awareness and understanding of key issues facing society, such as using our earth's resources sustainably, mitigating the effects of climate change and reducing natural disasters-related risks. By raising awareness of the importance of the area's geological heritage in history and society today, UNESCO Global Geoparks give local people a sense of pride in their region and strengthen their identification with the area. The creation of innovative local enterprises, new jobs and high quality training courses is stimulated as new sources of revenue are generated through geotourism, while the geological resources of the area are protected.
UNESCO Global Geoparks empower local communities and give them the opportunity to develop cohesive partnerships with the common goal of promoting the area's significant geological processes, features, periods of time, historical themes linked to geology, or outstanding geological beauty. UNESCO Global Geoparks are established through a bottom-up process involving all relevant local and regional stakeholders and authorities in the area (e.g. land owners, community groups, tourism providers, indigenous people, and local organizations). This process requires firm commitment by the local communities, a strong local multiple partnership with long-term public and political support, and the development of a comprehensive strategy that will meet all of the communities' goals while showcasing and protecting the area's geological heritage.
The Global Geoparks Network was established in 1998. The Republic of the Philippines ratified its membership in the network on 2015, along with all other UNESCO Member States that has yet to ratify the network since 1998. A UNESCO-designated global geopark in the Philippines will immediately be a member of the Asia Pacific Geoparks Network as well.
As of 2017, the Philippines has zero listed properties in the UNESCO Global Geoparks Network. The Chocolate Hills Natural Monument in Bohol, Biri Larosa Protected Landscape and Seascape in Northern Samar, Timpoong and Hibok-Hibok Natural Monument in Camiguin, Mount Pinatubo Volcanic Landscape in Central Luzon, the La Paz Sand Dunes and Kapurpurawan Rock Formations in Ilocos Norte, Minalungao National Park in Nueva Ecija, Mount Guiting-Guiting National Park in Romblon, Puerto Princesa Subterranean River National Park in Palawan Mount Mayon are strong contenders for inscription.
The UNESCO Global Geoparks Secretariat at UNESCO Headquarters coordinates the proposal submissions and is ready to provide advice. If existing in your country, National Geopark Committees may also be able to assist.
Successful UNESCO Global Geopark applications will have demonstrated that, already in the planning phase, they discussed and exchanged with other UNESCO Global Geoparks as well as the Global Geoparks Network (this usually starts several years before the actual submission of a dossier). It is important to seek advice in the preparation phase, participate in international or regional Geopark meetings, conferences, or short courses.
Before any formal application, any aspiring UNESCO Global Geopark must submit an expression of interest via the official channel as set out in the Statutes and Operational Guidelines for UNESCO Global Geoparks (in .pdf form). A comprehensive and carefully formatted application dossier (including supporting material to demonstrate that the area has already been functioning as a de facto Global Geopark for at least one year) must be submitted in the same way.
The aspiring UNESCO Global Geopark must have geological heritage of international value and be managed by a body having legal existence recognized under national legislation that has a comprehensive management plan, covering governance, development, communication, protection, infrastructure, finance, and partnership issues.
The aspiring UNESCO Global Geoparks must be visible to both visitors and local people through a dedicated website, leaflets, and detailed map of the area that connects the area's geological and other sites. An aspiring UNESCO Global Geopark must also have a corporate identity.
The timelines for UNESCO Global Geopark proposals and evaluation procedure are:
- Aspiring UNESCO Global Geopark sends a letter of intent, ideally by 1 July
- Submission of applications between 1 October and 30 November
- Verification check on completeness of documents after 1 December
- Desktop evaluations until 30 April
- Field evaluation missions starting 1 May
- Recommendations on applications by the UNESCO Global Geoparks Council in September
- Decision by the Executive Board of UNESCO during its spring session
UNESCO creative cities network in the Philippines
The UNESCO Creative Cities Network (UCCN) was created in 2004 to promote cooperation with and among cities that have identified creativity as a strategic factor for sustainable urban development. The 116 cities which currently make up this network work together towards a common objective: placing creativity and cultural industries at the heart of their development plans at the local level and cooperating actively at the international level. UNESCO is campaigning for more cities to join the network to enhance the creative potential for sustainable urban development, exchange know-how and cooperate on an international level of creative cities worldwide.
The categories that a city can be inscribed in are: Crafts & Folk Art, Design, Film, Gastronomy, Literature, Media Arts, and Music.
The Philippines currently has 1 city inscribed in the network, namely Baguio City. Cities/towns that have a high chance for nomination include Tugaya, which has been declared as a UNESCO Home for Culture and Heritage due to its indigenous crafts made of wood, threads, metals, and beads, Tiwi, which is known for its exquisite terracotta potteries, Lake Sebu, which is known for its indigenous crafts on necklaces, gongs, and other fine and unique metalwares, Angono, which is known for its high-caliber visual arts since the colonial eras, Basey, which is known for its fine garments – one of the best in Southeast Asia, Dumaguete City, which is the literature sweet spot in the Philippines and a huge contributor for Filipino and world literature, San Fernando, which is the capital of the capital of the Philippines' gastronomic culture, Romblon town, which is the marble capital of the Philippines and possesses the most number of fine home-made marbles anywhere in Southeast Asia, and Manila, which is one of the design, media arts, and music havens of the Philippines.
To become a member of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network, candidate cities must submit an application that clearly demonstrates their willingness, commitment and capacity to contribute to the objectives of the Network.
The Network covers 7 creative fields, which can be chosen by the cities according to their preference for a specific creative industry sector to which they devote their talent and energy.
The member cities that form the Network come from diverse regions, have different income levels and populations. The Network is first and foremost composed of cities ready to pool their resources, their experiences and knowledge for the common objectives laid out in the Network's Mission Statement. UNESCO Creative Cities are indeed key partners to UNESCO for the local implementation of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.
Joining the network is a longstanding commitment; it must involve a participative process and a forward-looking approach. Cities must present a realistic action plan including specific projects, initiatives or policies to be executed in the next four years to implement the objectives of the Network.
In August 2017, the government of the Philippines announced its plan to nominate Philippine cities in the UNESCO Creative Cities Network. Cities in the country which have been cited as having a strong potential in becoming part of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network are Baguio, Davao City, Angeles City, Cebu City and a number of cities in Metro Manila including the City of Manila. No semi-urban city was listed by the government. In November 1, 2017, Baguio City officially became the first ever UNESCO Creative City in the Philippines.
|Crafts & Folk Art||Baguio City||Cordillera Administrative Region||2017||Baguio City was founded during the American colonial period in the Philippines. Its architecture and landscape designs are predominantly American and indigenous Igorot in context. The city is known for its high-caliber artistry, notably in crafts and folk art, spanning from contemporary to Igorot art techniques and styles. The craftsmanship of the people are also evident in numerous communities, social gatherings, festivities, and art places.|||
UNESCO Asia Pacific Heritage Awards
As part of the Asia Pacific region, the Republic of the Philippines is allowed to enter the UNESCO Asia Pacific Heritage Awards. The awards are given with as the strategic purpose of UNESCO with in the region Asia Pacific. The objective is to motivate the protection of Cultural Heritage sites, which are initiated by any individual organization under private sector or institutional organization. The giving of the annual awards began in 2000 and is based in Bangkok. Application of sites begins every January 31 and ends every May 31.
The Awards consist of two major categories.
- Award of Excellence - the highest recognition presented to the projects that display exceptional achievement in all criteria and has major catalytic impact at the national or regional level.
- Initiated in 2000, the Awards recognize excellent achievement in successfully conserving or restoring heritage building and properties in the region by the private sector or by public-private initiatives. Three other levels of achievement being recognized include:
- Award of Distinction.
- Award of Merit.
- Honourable Mention.
- Initiated in 2000, the Awards recognize excellent achievement in successfully conserving or restoring heritage building and properties in the region by the private sector or by public-private initiatives. Three other levels of achievement being recognized include:
- Award for New Design in Heritage Contexts
- Previously known as the Jury Commendation for Innovation, this special award was established in 2005 and is given in addition to the conservation award categories. It recognizes newly built structures that demonstrate outstanding design well-integrated into historic contexts. Submissions of completed new architecture and design projects that enrich the heritage setting are encouraged as a part of the contribution to the future of sustainable heritage safeguarding.
The panel of jury members consists of leading scholars and practitioners in the field of cultural heritage conservation. There are currently 24 jury members.
Participation of the Philippines
Since the inception of the awards almost 2 decades ago, the Philippines has participated once in the Awards in 2001, where the Nielson Tower was given an Honorable Mention. The Philippines has not submitted a nomination in the Awards for the last 16 years.
|Award||Project Title||Location||Inscription Year||Jury Citation||Image||Ref|
|Honorable Mention||Neilson Tower (The Filipinas Heritage Library)||Metro Manila||2001||The impressive conversion of one of Asia’s earliest airports into a heritage library represents a major achievement in preserving an important era of Manila’s history. Historical events and architecture are exemplified in the legacy of the structure and in the choice to continue its livelihood as an educational facility. In a time of rapid urban development and expansion, the Nielson Tower is an excellent model for others to follow on how to appropriately re-adapt historic structures in the community.|||
- Culture of the Philippines
- List of protected areas of the Philippines
- List of Ramsar sites in the Philippines
- Biosphere reserves of the Philippines
- Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Philippines
- Philippines Memory of the World Register
- Lists of Cultural Properties of the Philippines
- National Commission for Culture and the Arts
- Elevation information varies between sources. Several sources evaluated as very reliable for this information give the elevation of Mount Kitanglad as 2,899 m. Several sources evaluated as less reliable for this information list a mountain named "Mount Katanglad" (spelled with "Ka" instead of "Ki") with an elevation of 2,938 m. Information gathered from the more reliable sources mentioned previously suggests that the elevation information in these sources is in error for Mount Kitanglad, and may refer to the nearby peak of Mount Dulang-dulang. Since the discovery of this error, Peakbagger (a site previously in error over the confusion between the two peaks) now has a verified page for "Mount Dulang-dulang", confirming the above information for that peak. Additionally, Peakbagger now also has a page for "Mt. Kitanglad" (with the correct spelling with an "i" and the corrected elevation data) explaining the mistake, though the Kitanglad page does contain a disclaimer stating its information is currently unverified.
- "Baroque Churches of the Philippines". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Historic City of Vigan". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5487/". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017. External link in
- "Puerto-Princesa Subterranean River National Park". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Tentative Lists: Philippines". UNESCO. Retrieved 28 March 2012.
- "Apo Reef Natural Park – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Baroque Churches of the Philippines (Extension) – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Batanes Protected landscapes and seascapes – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Butuan Archeological Sites – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Chocolate Hills Natural Monument – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Coron Island Natural Biotic Area – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "El Nido-Taytay Managed Resource Protected Area – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Kabayan Mummy Burial Caves – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org.
- "Mayon Volcano Natural Park (MMVNP) – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Mt. Iglit-Baco National Park – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Mt. Malindang Range Natural Park – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Mt. Mantalingahan Protected Landscape – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Mt. Pulag National Park – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org.
- "Neolithic Shell Midden Sites in Lal-lo and Gattaran Municipalities – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Northern Sierra Madre Natural Park and outlying areas inclusive of the buffer zone – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Paleolithic Archaeological Sites in Cagayan Valley – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Petroglyphs and Petrographs of the Philippines – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "The Tabon Cave Complex and all of Lipuun – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Turtle Islands Wildlife Sanctuary – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". whc.unesco.org.
- "PH, Mexico push to nominate Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade Route to World Heritage List". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. 28 April 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "Cities". Organization of World Heritage Cities. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "Vigan, Philippines – Organization of World Heritage Cities". www.ovpm.org.
- "Miagao, Philippines – Organization of World Heritage Cities". www.ovpm.org.
- "The Jean-Paul-L'Allier Prize for Heritage – Organization of World Heritage Cities". www.ovpm.org.
- "http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5023". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017. External link in
- "http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5017". whc.unesco.org. External link in
- Cite error: The named reference
gvpwas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "Taal Volcano", PHIVOLCS, retrieved on 2012-12-03 (archived from the original on 2008-09-12)
- Herre, Albert W. (1927-12-14); "The Fisheries of Lake Taal, Luzon and Lake Naujan", Philippine Journal of Science, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp.287–303, 1927
- "http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5026/". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017. External link in
- "http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5027/". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017. External link in
- "World Heritage: San Sebastian Church". Tentative List for the World Heritage List. UNESCO. Retrieved April 20, 2008.
- Layug, p. 88. "The basilica is the first and the only all-steel church in Asia, the second in the world after the Eiffel Tower of Paris (French engineer Alexandre Gustave Eiffel himself is also rumored BUT NEVER CONFIRMED to have been involved in the basilica's construction) "
- Francis Doral, ed. (2005). Insight Guides: Philippines. Singapore: Discovery Channel & APA Publications GmbH & Co. Verlag KG. p. 152.
Near where Recto avenue becomes Mendiola Street is San Sebastian Church, reputedly the only prefabricated steel church in the world.
- "http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/518/". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017. External link in
- "http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5025/". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017. External link in
- "Tentative Lists; Mount Apo Natural Park". UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 11 March 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2016.
- "Profile – Mt. Apo Natural Park". Philippine Protected Areas and Wildlife Bureau. Retrieved on 2011-04-29.
- "http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/5485/". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 July 2017. External link in
- "Mount Matutum Profile on PHIVOLCS". Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology. Retrieved 2009-01-28.
- Cite error: The named reference
volcanismwas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "Mt. Kitanglad (2,899+)" PinoyMountaineer.com. Retrieved 2012-03-11.
- A. Townsend Peterson; Thomas Brooks; Anita Gamauf; Juan Carlos T. Gonzalez; Neil Aldrin D. Mallari; Guy Dutson; Sarah E. Bush; Dale H. Clayton & Renato Fernandez (2008). "The Avifauna of Mt. Kitanglad, Bukidnon Province, Mindanao, Philippines" (PDF). Fieldiana Zoology. Field Museum of Natural History (114): 1–43 .
- Agnes C. Rola, Antonio T. Sumbalan & Vellorimo J. Suminguit (2004). Realities of the Watershed Management Approach: The Manupali Watershed Experience (PDF). Discussion Paper Series No. 2004-23. Philippine Institute for Development Studies. p. 4 (note 6).
- "Mount Katanglad". Peakery. Retrieved 2012-03-13. External link in
- "Mount Katanglad, Philippines". Peakbagger. Retrieved 2012-03-13. External link in
- "PHILIPPINES MOUNTAINS : 29 Mountain Summits with Prominence of 1,500 meters or greater". Peaklist. Retrieved 2012-03-13. External link in
- "Mount Dulang-dulang, Philippines" Peakagger.com. Retrieved 2014-04-25.
- "Mt. Kitanglad" Peakbagger.com. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
- "Proclamation No. 166, s. 1937". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- "Museum staff conduct ocular of target sites in Mulanay, Quezon". University of the Philippines Los Baños Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- "Mount Maclayao". Geoview. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- "Unique ancient tombs found in Quezon province". Sun.Star. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- "1,000-year-old village found in Philippines". The Telegraph. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
-  Archived November 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- Ronald Echalas Diaz, Chan Robles & Associates Law Firm. "Philippine Laws, Statutes And Codes – Chan Robles Virtual Law Library". Chanrobles.com. Retrieved 2015-12-23.
- Cite error: The named reference
angelswas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 21, 2012. Retrieved February 20, 2012.
- See Jaro Belfry across Plaza Rizal Street on this map
- "Iloilo « Heritage Conservation Society". heritageconservation.wordpress.com.
- "A History of the Philippines by David P. Barrows" Page 147. The few years of Ronquillo's reign were in other ways important. A colony of Spaniards was established at Oton, on the island of Panay, which was given the name of Arévalo (Iloilo).
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-04.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 24, 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-04.
- Geni Raitisoja (July 8, 2006). "Chinatown Manila: Oldest in the world". Archived from the original on March 27, 2012. Retrieved January 12, 2015.
- Simon Ostheimer (September 12, 2012). "World's best Chinatowns". Retrieved January 12, 2015.
- San Juanico Bridge, the country's longest Cebu Network.com. Retrieved on 13 October 2013
- Alba, Reinerio. "The Restoration of 26 Philippine Churches". http://ncca.gov.ph/. Retrieved 29 December 2014. External link in
- "Arkitektura". Sun Star. March 10, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2014.
- Cite error: The named reference
:0was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- Peralta, Jesus T.; Laya, Jaime C.; Francisco, Juan; Baradas, David B.; Abinion, Orlando V. (May 30, 2008). "Museum Declaration no. 4, 2008: Declaration of the Maranao torogan, specifically the Kawayan Torogan, as national cultural treasure" (PDF). National Museum of the Philippines. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 7, 2014. Retrieved September 4, 2014.
- Tayag, Claude (July 23, 2006). "Keepers of the flame". The Philippine Star.
- Sembrano, Edgar Allan M. (4 August 2014). "Bohol, Samar churches removed from Unesco World Heritage nomination". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- "UNESCO's newest World Heritage Sites". cnnphilippines.com.
- "UNESCO Global Geoparks – United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". www.unesco.org.
- "What is a UNESCO Global Geopark? – United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". www.unesco.org.
- "La Paz Sand Dunes". 10 May 2017 – via Wikipedia.
- "Chocolate Hills". 16 June 2017 – via Wikipedia.
- "Creative Cities – Creative Cities Network". en.unesco.org.
- To become a member of the UNESCO Creative Cities Network, candidate cities must submit an application that clearly demonstrates their willingness, commitment and capacity to contribute to the objectives of the Network. The Network covers 7 creative fields, which can be chosen by the cities according to their preference for a specific creative industry sector to which they devote their talent and energy. The member cities that form the Network come from diverse regions, have different income levels and populations. The Network is first and foremost composed of cities ready to pool their resources, their experiences and knowledge for the common objectives laid out in the Network's Mission Statement. UNESCO Creative Cities are indeed key partners to UNESCO for the local implementation of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Joining the network is a longstanding commitment; it must involve a participative process and a forward-looking approach. Cities must present a realistic action plan including specific projects, initiatives or policies to be executed in the next four years to implement the objectives of the Network.
- "Call for Applications – Creative Cities Network". en.unesco.org.
- Cite error: The named reference
unescobejwas invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- Media related to World Heritage Sites in the Philippines at Wikimedia Commons
- Facts About Philippine Wonders of Nature
- UNESCO World Heritage Sites — Official site
- UNESCO World Heritage Centre — Official site
- Detailed list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in the Philippines with large pictures