List of massacres in China

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The following are lists of massacres that have occurred in China (numbers may be approximate or exaggerated):

Pre-20th century[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Guangzhou massacre 878–879 Guangzhou 120,000 Foreign merchants (Muslim Arabs, Muslim Persians, Zoroastrian Persians, Christians, and Jews) were killed.[citation needed]
Sichuan massacre 1645-1646 Sichuan, China 1,000,000 est.[1] There is no reliable figure, but estimated 1 million out of 3 million Sichuanese were massacred mainly by the army of Zhang Xianzhong.[1]
Yangzhou massacre 1645 Yangzhou =?< 300,000 (modern estimate)[2]
Dzungar genocide 1755–1757 Dzungar Khanate 540,000[3] 480,000 to 600,000 deaths. 80% of population killed[citation needed]
Jindandao incident 1891 Inner Mongolia 150,000 Ethnic tensions led a Chinese secret society, Jindandao, to revolt and kill 150,000 Mongols.
Ningpo Massacre 1800s Ningbo 40 Cantonese pirates supported by the Qing massacred 40 Portuguese pirates.
Port Arthur massacre 1894, November 21 Lüshunkou, Liaoning 4500 1000–20,000[citation needed]
Kucheng Massacre 1895, August 1 Gutian, Fujian 11 11 British Missionaries killed by a fasting folk religious group on August 1, 1895

Pre-Mao 20th century[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Taiyuan Massacre 1900, July Taiyuan, Shanxi 45
Shanghai massacre of 1927 1927, April 12 Shanghai 1200 300–400 direct deaths. 5000 missing
Politically motivated massacres in Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet 1931-1935 Most parts of Ganzhou and every part of Tingzhou 700,000[4] Occurred in the mountainous parts which are almost entirely only populated by Hakkas of Jiangxi and Fujian.
Kizil massacre 1933, June near Kashgar, Xinjiang 800
Kashgar massacre 1934 Kashgar, Xinjiang 2,000-8,000
Nanking Massacre 1937, December 13 Nanjing 110,000[5] 40,000–300,000 deaths.The death toll is disputed, ranging from some Japanese claims of several hundred,[6] to the Chinese claim of a non-combatant death toll of 300,000.[7] Most other nations believe the death toll to be between 150,000–300,000, based on the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal verdict, and another estimate of the civilian toll (excluding soldiers and POWs) is about 40,000–60,000, which corresponds to the figures from three sources.[8]
Kuomintang Anti-Communist massacre 1928 Nationwide in China 300,000[9] Mass executions of alleged communist by the Kuomintang, the Capitalist Party.
Changjiao massacre 1943, May 9–12 Changjiao, Hunan 30,000

Mao Era[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Mass killings of landlords during land reform 1947–1951 Nationwide in China 4,500,000[10] 800,000 to 28,000,000 deaths.
mean estimate of 4,500,000[11]
Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries 1950–1951 Nationwide in China 1,200,000[12] 712,000[13] to 2,000,000[14]
Political repression during the Great Leap Forward 1958–1961 Nationwide in China 4,200,000[15] 2.5 million were tortured to death and 1 to 3 committed suicide during the Great Leap Forward.[16] Excludes those who perished of starvation.
Mass violence during the Cultural Revolution 1969–1979 Nationwide in China 2,000,000[17] 400,000[18] to 10,000,000[19]
Daoxian massacre 1967, August 13 – October 17 Daoxian, Hunan 4,519 A massacre during the Cultural Revolution.

Post-Mao Era[edit]

Name Date Location Deaths Notes
Qitaihe prosperous club explosion 1979, December 1 Qitaihe 86 Qitaihe Dongfeng commune rich and powerful brigade club workers in the screening of the film suddenly exploded, the house collapsed, killing 86 people on the spot, wounded 222 people. After the case, the Public Security Bureau lasted 55 days, cracked the big bloody murder case, criminal Xu Fenghao, Xu Fengde was arrested according to law.[20]
Hulunbeier League massacre 1983,June 16 Inner Mongolia 27 8 criminals in a dozen hours of committing the time, brutally killed 27 innocent people.[21]
Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 1989, June 4 Beijing 241 Between 241 and 10,000 civilians were killed. The Red Cross states that around 2,600 died and the official Chinese government figure is 241 dead with 7,000 wounded.[22] Amnesty International's estimates puts the number of deaths at several hundred to close to 1,000. NATO intelligence reported around 7,000 and the Soviet Union reported around 10,000.[citation needed] As many as 10,000 estimated people were arrested during the protests.[citation needed]
Thousand Island Lake robbery killings 1994, March 31 Zhejiang Province 32 24 Taiwanese tourists, 6 crew members, and 2 mainland Chinese passengers on board the "Hai Rui" sightseeing cruise were robbed and murdered. The incident cast a shadow over cross-strait relations.[23]
Guangxi Annotation Bombings 1994 2 August Guangxi 82
Ghulja Incident 1997, February 5 Ghulja, Xinjiang 9 9–100+ deaths. Demonstrations in Ghulja were violently put down by police after two days of protesting. Official reports put the death toll at 9. [24]
Long wins round robbery 1998 November 15 Shanwei 23 Guangdong Province, Shanwei City, the territory of an armed robbery case, the Hong Kong shipping company "Changsheng" million tons of cargo ship on the 23 Chinese expatriate crew were all killed after the corpse of the sea.[25]
Beijing Internet cafes arson case June 16, 2002 Beijing 25 Beijing Haidian District College Road on the 20th hospital occurred with a malicious revenge arson incident, resulting in 25 deaths, 12 different degrees of injury. According to the public security organs of the investigation, four arsonists are minors.[26]
Kunming massacre[27] 2014, March 1 Kunming 33 (including four perpetrators)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b James B. Parsons (May 1957). "The Culmination of a Chinese Peasant Rebellion: Chang Hsien-chung in Szechwan, 1644-46". The Journal of Asian Studies. Association for Asian Studies. 16 (3): 387–400. doi:10.2307/2941233. JSTOR 2941233. 
  2. ^ Struve (1993) (note at p. 269), following a 1964 article by Zhang Defang, notes that the entire city's population at the time was not likely to be more than 300,000, and that of the entire Yangzhou Prefecture, 800,000.
  3. ^ Geometric mean of 480 and 600 thousand rounded up to nearest ten thousand.
  4. ^ Mao: The Unknown Story. p. 133. 
  5. ^ Geometric mean of 40 and 300 thousand rounded to nearest 10 thousand.
  6. ^ Masaaki Tanaka claims that very few citizens were killed, and that the massacre is in fact a fabrication in his book “Nankin gyakusatsu” no kyokō (The "Nanking Massacre" as Fabrication).
  7. ^ "Why the past still separates China and Japan" Robert Marquand (August 20, 2001) Christian Science Monitor. States an estimate of 300,000 dead.
  8. ^ "''The Nanking Atrocities: Fact and Fable''". Wellesley.edu. Archived from the original on 2011-02-28. Retrieved 2011-03-06. 
  9. ^ Barnouin, Barbara and Yu Changgen. Zhou Enlai: A Political Life. Hong Kong: Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2006. ISBN 962-996-280-2. Retrieved at <https://books.google.com/books?id=NztlWQeXf2IC&printsec=frontcover&dq=zhou+enlai&hl=en&ei=wBkuTdKyB4H_8AaJucigAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CCsQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false> on March 12, 2011. p.38
  10. ^ Rummel's estimate assumedly obtained by taking the geometric mean of Mao's 800 thousand figure and the 28 million figure taken as a maximum and then rounded down to the nearest 500 thousand.
  11. ^ Rummel, Rudolph J. (2007). China's bloody century: genocide and mass murder since 1900. Transaction Publishers. p. 223. ISBN 978-1-4128-0670-1. 
  12. ^ Geometric mean 712,000 and 2 million rounded to nearest 100 thousand.
  13. ^ Yang Kuisong (2008). "Reconsidering the Campaign to Suppress Counterrevolutionaries". The China Quarterly. 193: 102–121. doi:10.1017/S0305741008000064. (subscription required)summary at China Change blog
  14. ^ Changyu, Li. "Mao's "Killing Quotas." Human Rights in China (HRIC). 26 September 2005, at Shandong University" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 July 2009. 
  15. ^ 2.5 million violent deaths plus geometric mean of 1 to 3 million suicide rounded to nearest 100 thousand.
  16. ^ Dikötter (2010). pp. 298, 304.
  17. ^ Geometric mean of 400,000 and 10 million
  18. ^ Maurice Meisner (1999). Mao's China and After: A History of the People's Republic (3rd ed.). Free Press. p. 354. ISBN 978-0684856353. 
  19. ^
    Merrill Goldman; Lydia Perry (December 5, 1995). "The Chinese Case: Was It Genocide or Poor Policy?". The Cultural Revolution was modern China’s most destructive episode. It is estimated that 100 million people were persecuted and about five to ten million people, mostly intellectuals and party officials lost their lives.
  20. ^ 富强俱乐部爆炸案, (October 12, 2006)
  21. ^ 引发83严打的呼伦贝尔盟血案--你不知道的20个中国大案之十四, (February 7, 2014)
  22. ^ Zhang 2001, p. 436.
  23. ^ 第67期:千岛湖事件(组图), (April 25, 2008)
  24. ^ "China Uighurs executed". BBC News. 1998-01-27. 
  25. ^ 长胜轮23人惨案一主犯落网 大海盗张军红即将受审, (June 24, 2002)
  26. ^ “蓝极速”网吧火灾系人为导致 纵火者为俩初中生, (June 20, 2002)
  27. ^ "Kunming massacre: Has the global jihad reached China?". Telegraph.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-02-21.