Technology is the practical use of science, including the making, modification or improvement, applied activity or behavior, use and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems, methods of organization, or environmental modifications or arrangement in order to solve a problem, improve a preexisting solution to a problem, achieve a goal or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, modifications, environmental arrangement and procedures. Technologies significantly affect human as well as other animal species' ability to control and adapt to their natural environments. The word technology comes from Greek τεχνολογία (technología); from τέχνη (téchnē), meaning 'art, skill, craft', and -λογία (-logía), meaning 'study of-'. The term can be applied either generally or to many specific areas, examples of which include construction technology, medical technology and information technology.
The human species' use of technology began with the conversion of natural resources into simple tools. The prehistorical discovery of the ability to control fire increased the available sources of food and the invention of the wheel helped humans in travelling in and controlling their environment. Recent technological developments, including the printing press, the telephone, and the Internet, have lessened physical barriers to communication and allowed humans to interact freely on a global scale. However, not all technology has been used for peaceful purposes; the development of weapons of ever-increasing destructive power has progressed throughout history, from clubs to nuclear weapons.
Technology has affected society and its surroundings in a number of ways. In many societies, technology has helped develop more advanced economies (including today's global economy) and has allowed the rise of a leisure class. Many technological processes produce unwanted by-products, known as pollution, and deplete natural resources, to the detriment of the Earth and its environment. Various implementations of technology influence the values of a society and new technology often raises new ethical questions. Examples include the rise of the notion of efficiency in terms of human productivity, a term originally applied only to machines, and the challenge of traditional norms.
Philosophical debates have arisen over the present and future use of technology in society, with disagreements over whether technology improves the human condition or worsens it. Neo-Luddism, anarcho-primitivism, and similar movements criticise the pervasiveness of technology in the modern world, opining that it harms the environment and alienates people; proponents of ideologies such as transhumanism and techno-progressivism view continued technological progress as beneficial to society and the human condition. Indeed, until recently, it was believed that the development of technology was restricted only to human beings, but recent scientific studies indicate that other primates and certain dolphin communities have developed simple tools and learned to pass their knowledge to other generations.
is a web browser
and internet suite
developed by the Opera Software
company. Opera handles common Internet
-related tasks such as displaying web sites
, sending and receiving e-mail
messages, managing contacts, IRC online chatting
, downloading files via BitTorrent
, and reading web feeds
. Opera is offered free of charge for personal computers
and mobile phones
, but for other devices it must be paid for. Features of Opera include tabbed browsing
, page zooming
, mouse gestures
, and an integrated download manager
. Its security features include built-in phishing
protection, strong encryption
when browsing secure web sites, and the ability to easily delete private data such as cookies
and browsing history by simply clicking a button. Opera runs on a variety of personal computer operating systems
, including Microsoft Windows
, Mac OS X
, and Solaris
. Though evaluations of Opera
have been largely positive, Opera has captured only a fraction of the worldwide personal computer browser market. Opera has a stronger market share on mobile devices such as mobile phones
, and personal digital assistants
. Editions of Opera are available for devices using the Symbian
and Windows Mobile
operating systems, as well as Java ME
-enabled devices. Approximately 40 million mobile phones have shipped with Opera pre-installed.
- 17 June 1946 – The first telephone call using the Mobile Telephone Service, a precursor to the cellular phone, is made in St. Louis, Missouri
- 20 June 2003 – The Wikimedia Foundation (logo pictured), the non-profit that operates Wikipedia and its sister projects, is founded in St. Petersburg, Florida
- 28 June 1972 – Atari, a pioneer in arcade games, home video game consoles, and home computers, is founded as Atari, Inc.
- 28 June 2006 – The Series of tubes speech is delivered by then-United States Senator Ted Stevens to describe the Internet and defend the Senator's opposition to network neutrality
- Parent project
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