|<<||Selected anniversaries for November||>>|
|An archive of historical anniversaries that appeared on the Main Page
2017 day arrangement
- 1214 – Byzantine–Seljuq wars: Seljuq Turks captured the important port city of Sinope.
- 1914 – World War I: The first contingent of the First Australian Imperial Force departed Albany.
- 1941 – American photographer Ansel Adams shot Moonrise, Hernandez, New Mexico, one of his most famous photographs.
- 1959 – After being struck in the face with a hockey puck, Jacques Plante played the rest of the game wearing a face mask (pictured), now mandatory equipment for goaltenders in ice hockey.
- 1998 – The European Court of Human Rights was instituted as a permanent court with full-time judges to monitor compliance by the signatory parties of the European Convention on Human Rights.
- 619 – Emperor Gaozu allowed the assassination of a khagan of the Western Turkic Khaganate by Eastern Turkic rivals, one of the earliest events in the Tang campaigns against the Western Turks.
- 1932 – The Australian military began a "war against emus", a flightless native bird (specimen pictured) blamed for widespread damage to crops in Western Australia.
- 1949 – The Dutch–Indonesian Round Table Conference ended with the Netherlands agreeing to transfer sovereignty of the Dutch East Indies to the United States of Indonesia.
- 1957 – A large number of people witnessed a fiery object in the sky near Levelland, Texas, which the United States Air Force said was ball lightning.
- 2007 – In Tbilisi, Georgia, up to 100,000 people demonstrated against the allegedly corrupt government of president Mikheil Saakashvili.
- 1838 – The Times of India, the world's highest-circulation English-language daily broadsheet newspaper, was founded as the The Bombay Times and Journal of Commerce.
- 1881 – Indigenous Mapuches rebelled against Chile's occupation of Araucanía.
- 1942 – World War II: U.S. Marines and U.S. Army forces began an attempt to encircle and destroy a regiment of Imperial Japanese Army troops on Guadalcanal.
- 1957 – The Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 2 spacecraft, carrying Laika (pictured on stamp) the Russian space dog as the first living creature from Earth to enter orbit.
- 1969 – U.S. President Richard Nixon made a plea to the "silent majority", referring to those Americans who did not join in the large demonstrations against the Vietnam War at the time.
- 1847 – Scottish physician James Young Simpson discovered the anaesthetic qualities of chloroform.
- 1890 – London's City and South London Railway (locomotive pictured), the first deep-level underground railway in the world, opened, running a distance of 3.2 mi (5.1 km) between the City of London and Stockwell.
- 1960 – At the Kasakela Chimpanzee Community in Tanzania, Jane Goodall observed a chimpanzee using a grass stalk to extract termites from a termite hill, the first recorded case of tool use by animals.
- 1970 – Authorities in Temple City, California, discovered a 13-year-old feral child known as "Genie", who had spent almost her entire life in social isolation.
- 1995 – Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin was assassinated by Yigal Amir while at a peace rally at the Kings of Israel Square in Tel Aviv.
- 1138 – Lý Anh Tông was enthroned as emperor of Đại Việt at the age of two, starting a 37-year reign.
- 1828 – Greek War of Independence: The French Morea expedition to recapture Morea (now the Peloponnese) ended when the last Ottoman forces departed the peninsula.
- 1943 – World War II: An unknown aircraft dropped four bombs on Vatican City, which maintained neutrality during the war.
- 1967 – A train derailed near Hither Green maintenance depot in London, killing 49 people and injuring 78 others.
- 2007 – Led by Google, 34 companies established the Open Handset Alliance to develop open standards for mobile devices, leading to the development of the Android operating system (logo pictured).
- 447 – A powerful earthquake destroyed large portions of the Walls of Constantinople, including 57 towers.
- 1217 – The Charter of the Forest was issued at St Paul's Cathedral, London, by King Henry III, which re-established the rights of access to the royal forest for free men.
- 1856 – Scenes of Clerical Life, the first work by English author George Eliot (pictured), was submitted for publication.
- 1977 – The Kelly Barnes Dam in Stephens County, Georgia, U.S., collapsed, and the resulting flood killed 39 people and caused $2.8 million in damages.
- 1995 – Madagascar's Rova of Antananarivo, which served as the royal palace from the 17th to 19th centuries, was destroyed by fire.
- 680 – The Sixth Ecumenical Council convened in Constantinople to take a position on the theological positions of monoenergism and monothelitism.
- 1775 – Lord Dunmore, the royal governor of the British Colony of Virginia, signed a proclamation promising freedom for slaves of Patriots if they joined the British Armed Forces.
- 1861 – American Civil War: Future U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant engaged in his first combat leadership role in the Battle of Belmont in Mississippi County, Missouri.
- 1917 – World War I: British forces captured Gaza when the Ottoman garrison abandoned the area.
- 1987 – Singapore's first Mass Rapid Transit line was opened (train pictured), starting with train services between Yio Chu Kang and Toa Payoh stations.
- 960 – Arab–Byzantine wars: Having been the target of many raids by the Emirate of Aleppo, Byzantine forces led by Leo Phokas the Younger ambushed the Hamdanids and annihilated their army.
- 1644 – The Shunzhi Emperor, the third emperor of the Qing dynasty, was enthroned in Beijing after the collapse of the Ming dynasty as the first Qing emperor to rule over China proper.
- 1939 – Johann Georg Elser (pictured) unsuccessfully attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler with a time bomb, but killed eight people and injured more than sixty-two others.
- 1972 – HBO, the oldest and longest continuously operating pay television service in the United States, began broadcasting to 325 subscribers.
- 1987 – A Provisional Irish Republican Army bomb exploded during a Remembrance Sunday ceremony in Enniskillen, Northern Ireland, killing twelve people and injuring sixty-three others.
- 1822 – USS Alligator (pictured) engaged three piratical schooners off the coast of Cuba in one of the West Indies anti-piracy operations of the United States.
- 1914 – World War I: In the Cocos Islands, the Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney sank SMS Emden, the last active Central Powers warship in the Indian Ocean.
- 1938 – Kristallnacht began as SA stormtroopers and civilians destroyed and ransacked Jewish homes, businesses and synagogues in Germany and Austria, resulting in at least 90 deaths and the deportation of over 30,000 others to concentration camps.
- 1989 – Günter Schabowski mistakenly announced the immediate opening of the inner German border, causing the fall of Berlin Wall that night.
- 2016 – A tram derailed in Croydon, United Kingdom, killing seven people.
- 1202 – The Fourth Crusade began the Siege of Zara (now Zadar, Croatia), the first time Catholic crusaders attacked a Catholic city.
- 1865 – Henry Wirz, the superintendent of the Confederacy's Andersonville Prison, was hanged after a controversial conviction, becoming the only American Civil War soldier executed for war crimes.
- 1989 – Longtime Bulgarian leader Todor Zhivkov resigned and was replaced by Petar Mladenov (pictured).
- 2007 – At the Ibero-American Summit in Santiago, Chile, King Juan Carlos I of Spain asked President of Venezuela Hugo Chávez "Why don't you shut up?" after Chávez repeatedly interrupted a speech by Spanish Prime Minister José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero.
- 1215 – The Fourth Lateran Council convened, during which it was declared that belief in the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation was obligatory.
- 1500 – During the Italian War of 1499–1504, Louis XII of France and Ferdinand II of Aragon signed a secret treaty to divide the Mezzogiorno between themselves.
- 1934 – The Shrine of Remembrance (pictured), a memorial to all Australians who have served in war, opened in Melbourne.
- 1940 – Second World War: The Royal Navy launched the first all-aircraft ship-to-ship naval attack in history against the Italians in the Battle of Taranto.
- 1999 – The House of Lords Act was given royal assent, removing most hereditary peers from the British House of Lords.
- 1892 – William Heffelfinger was paid $525 by the Allegheny Athletic Association, becoming the first professional American football player on record.
- 1905 – In a referendum, 79% of voters opted to keep Norway a monarchy, paving the way for Haakon VII to take the throne.
- 1942 – World War II: The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal, the decisive engagement in a series of naval battles between Allied and Japanese forces during the months-long Guadalcanal Campaign in the Solomon Islands, began.
- 1970 – A cyclone made landfall on the coast of East Pakistan (Bangladesh), becoming the deadliest tropical cyclone in history, with up to 500,000 people killed.
- 2014 – The European Space Agency's Philae lander (artist's impression shown) became the first spacecraft to land on a comet when it touched down on 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko.
- 1002 – King Æthelred II (pictured) ordered the massacre of all Danes in England.
- 1642 – First English Civil War: The Royalist army engaged the much larger Parliamentarian army at the Battle of Turnham Green near Turnham Green, Middlesex.
- 1927 – The Holland Tunnel, connecting Manhattan with Jersey City, New Jersey, under the Hudson River, opened.
- 1992 – The High Court of Australia ruled in Dietrich v The Queen that although there is no absolute right to have publicly funded counsel, in most circumstances a judge should grant any request for an adjournment or stay when an accused is unrepresented.
- 2007 – An explosion hit the Batasang Pambansa complex in Quezon City, the Philippines, killing Congressman Wahab Akbar and at least four others.
- 1910 – Aviator Eugene Burton Ely performed the first takeoff from a ship (pictured), flying from a makeshift deck on the USS Birmingham in the U.S. state of Virginia.
- 1941 – Second World War: After suffering torpedo damage the previous day, the British aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal sank as she was being towed to Gibraltar for repairs.
- 1970 – Southern Airways Flight 932, chartered by the Marshall University football team, crashed into a hill near Ceredo, West Virginia, U.S., killing all 75 people on board.
- 1995 – As a result of budget conflicts between President Bill Clinton and the United States Congress led by Newt Gingrich, the federal government was forced to shut down non-essential services.
- 2003 – Astronomers Michael E. Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David L. Rabinowitz discovered the trans-Neptunian object 90377 Sedna.
- 655 – Penda of Mercia was defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria at the Battle of the Winwaed in modern-day Yorkshire, England.
- 1760 – The chapel of the new Castellania Palace (pictured) in Valletta, Malta, was consecrated.
- 1889 – Brazilian Emperor Pedro II was overthrown in a coup led by Deodoro da Fonseca, and Brazil was proclaimed a republic.
- 1959 – Two men murdered a family in Holcomb, Kansas, U.S.; the events became the subject of Truman Capote's non-fiction novel In Cold Blood, a pioneering work of the true crime genre.
- 1968 – Vietnam War: American forces launched Operation Commando Hunt, a large-scale bombing campaign to prevent the People's Army of Vietnam from transporting personnel and supplies along the Ho Chi Minh trail.
- 1476 – With the help of Stephen the Great and Stephen V Báthory, Vlad the Impaler became the ruler of Wallachia for the third time after forcing Basarab Laiotă to flee to the Ottoman Empire.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: British and Hessian units captured Fort Washington from the Patriots.
- 1967 – Aeroflot Flight 2230 crashed after takeoff from Koltsovo Airport, Sverdlovsk (now Yekaterinburg), killing all 107 people aboard.
- 1992 – In Suffolk, England, a local man found the largest hoard of Roman silver and gold in Britain (sample pictured), including the largest collection of 4th/5th-century gold and silver coins ever discovered within the former Roman Empire.
- 1997 – Chinese dissident Wei Jingsheng was released for "medical reasons" after spending 17½ of the previous 18 years in prison, and was deported to the United States.
- 1558 – Elizabeth I (pictured) became Queen of England and Ireland, marking the beginning of the Elizabethan era.
- 1839 – Giuseppe Verdi's first opera Oberto, Conte di San Bonifacio, was first performed at La Scala in Milan.
- 1871 – The United States' National Rifle Association was first chartered in the state of New York by William Conant Church and George Wood Wingate.
- 1894 – H. H. Holmes, one of the first modern serial killers, was arrested in Boston after having killed at least nine people.
- 1997 – Sixty-two people were killed by terrorists outside the Deir el-Bahri in Luxor, one of Egypt's top tourist attractions.
- 1809 – Napoleonic Wars: In the Bay of Bengal, a French frigate squadron captured three East Indiamen mainly carrying recruits for the Indian Army.
- 1872 – American suffragette Susan B. Anthony (pictured) was arrested and fined $100 for having voted in the U.S. presidential election in Rochester, New York, two weeks prior.
- 1956 – In the Polish embassy in Moscow, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev said "We will bury you" while addressing Western envoys, prompting them to leave the room.
- 1987 – In London, an underground fire killed 31 people at King's Cross St. Pancras tube station.
- 2012 – Pope Tawadros II of Alexandria took office as the 118th Pope of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.
- 1794 – The United States and Great Britain signed the Jay Treaty, the basis for ten years of peaceful trade between the two nations.
- 1863 – American Civil War: U.S. President Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
- 1942 – World War II: Soviet troops launched Operation Uranus at the Battle of Stalingrad, with the goal of encircling Axis forces, turning the tide of the battle in the Soviet Union's favour.
- 1969 – Playing for Santos against Vasco da Gama in Rio de Janeiro, Brazilian footballer Pelé (pictured) scored his one thousandth goal.
- 2010 – The first of four explosions occurred at the Pike River Mine in the West Coast region of New Zealand in the nation's worst mining disaster in nearly a century.
November 20: Reciting the sermon on the night of the martyrdom of Imam Reza (Islam, 2017); Transgender Day of Remembrance; National Sovereignty Day in Argentina
- 284 – Diocletian (pictured on coin) became the Roman emperor, eventually establishing reforms that ended the Crisis of the Third Century.
- 1776 – American Revolutionary War: The Battle of Fort Lee marked the invasion of New Jersey by British and Hessian forces and the subsequent general retreat of the Continental Army.
- 1917 – First World War: The Battle of Cambrai began with British forces having initial success over Germany's Hindenburg Line.
- 1990 – Andrei Chikatilo, one of the Soviet Union's most prolific serial killers with 56 convicted murders, was arrested in Novocherkassk.
- 1994 – In accordance with the Lusaka Protocol, the Angolan government signed a ceasefire with UNITA rebels in a failed attempt to end the Angolan Civil War.
- 1386 – Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur captured and sacked the Georgian capital of Tbilisi, forcing King Bagrat V to convert to Islam.
- 1894 – First Sino-Japanese War: After capturing the city of Lüshunkou, the Japanese Second Army killed more than 1,000 Chinese servicemen and civilians.
- 1916 – HMHS Britannic was destroyed by a naval mine off the Greek island of Kea, making it the largest ship lost during the First World War.
- 1977 – "God Defend New Zealand" (audio featured) became New Zealand's second national anthem, on equal standing with "God Save the Queen", which had been the traditional one since 1840.
- 2009 – An explosion in a coal mine in Heilongjiang, China, killed 108 miners.
- 1718 – The pirate Blackbeard was killed in battle by a boarding party of British sailors off the coast of North Carolina, ending his reign of terror in the Caribbean.
- 1812 – War of 1812: During a punitive expedition against Native American villages, a contingent of Indiana Rangers were ambushed by Kickapoo, Winnebago, and Shawnee warriors.
- 1910 – The crews of the Brazilian warships Minas Geraes, São Paulo, Bahia—all commissioned only months before—and several smaller vessels mutinied against what they called the "slavery" being practiced in the Brazilian Navy.
- 1935 – The China Clipper flying boat (pictured) took off from Alameda, California, U.S., to become the first service to deliver airmail cargo across the Pacific Ocean.
- 1967 – The United Nations Security Council unanimously adopted Resolution 242 in the aftermath of the Six-Day War between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, and Syria.
- 1499 – Perkin Warbeck (pictured), a pretender to the English throne during the reign of King Henry VII, was hanged after allegedly attempting to escape from the Tower of London.
- 1733 – African slaves from Akwamu in the Danish West Indies revolted against their owners, one of the earliest and longest slave revolts in the Americas.
- 1980 – An earthquake struck the Irpinia region of Italy, killing 2,914 people, injuring more than 10,000 and leaving 300,000 homeless.
- 1996 – Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961 was hijacked, then crashed into the Indian Ocean near the Comoros after running out of fuel, killing 125 of the 175 people on board.
- 2012 – "Il Canto degli Italiani" officially became the national anthem of Italy almost seventy years after it was provisionally chosen following the birth of the Italian Republic.
- 1542 – Anglo-Scottish Wars: England captured about 1,200 Scottish prisoners with its victory in the Battle of Solway Moss.
- 1859 – On the Origin of Species by British naturalist Charles Darwin (pictured) was first published, and sold out its initial print run on the first day.
- 1906 – A local newspaper accused members of two teams of conspiring to deliberately lose games, the first major scandal in American football.
- 1922 – Irish Civil War: Author and Irish nationalist Robert Erskine Childers was executed by the Irish Free State for illegally carrying a semi-automatic pistol.
- 1976 – The Çaldıran–Muradiye earthquake in eastern Turkey killed at least 4,000 people.
Baruch Spinoza (b. 1632) ·
- 1120 – William Adelin, the only legitimate son of King Henry I of England, drowned in the White Ship disaster, leading to 18 years of civil war, a period later known as the Anarchy.
- 1491 – Reconquista: The Granada War was effectively brought to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Granada between Castile-Aragon and the Emirate of Granada.
- 1795 – Stanisław II Augustus, the last King of Poland, was forced to abdicate after the Third Partition of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
- 1936 – Nazi Germany and the Empire of Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact, agreeing that if the Soviet Union attacked one of them, they would consult each other on what measures to take "to safeguard their common interests".
- 1970 – Failing to instigate a military coup to restore the powers of the Emperor of Japan, author Yukio Mishima (pictured) publicly committed the ritual suicide seppuku.
- 1161 – A Song dynasty fleet defeated Jin dynasty ships in a naval engagement on the Yangtze river during the Jin–Song Wars.
- 1842 – The University of Notre Dame (main administration building pictured) was founded by Rev. Edward Sorin, of the Congregation of Holy Cross, as an all-male institution in South Bend, Indiana, US.
- 1943 – Second World War: The British troop ship HMT Rohna was sunk in the Mediterranean by a Luftwaffe bomb, killing more than 1,100 people.
- 1983 – Six robbers broke into the Brink's-Mat warehouse at London Heathrow Airport and stole three tonnes (6,612 lb) of gold bullion, much of which has never been recovered.
- 2011 – US-led NATO forces engaged Pakistani security forces at two Pakistani military checkposts along the Afghanistan–Pakistan border in a friendly fire incident.
- 1856 – King-Grand Duke William III unilaterally revised the constitution of Luxembourg, greatly expanding his powers.
- 1895 – Swedish chemist and industrialist Alfred Nobel (pictured) signed his last will and testament, setting aside the bulk of his estate to establish the Nobel Prize after his death.
- 1940 – The Iron Guard killed over 60 political detainees at a penitentiary near Bucharest and followed up with several high-profile assassinations, including that of former Romanian Prime Minister Nicolae Iorga.
- 1944 – Between 3,500 and 4,000 tonnes of ordnance exploded at the RAF Fauld underground munitions storage depot in the largest non-nuclear explosion in the United Kingdom.
- 1999 – The Labour Party defeated the governing National Party in the New Zealand general election, making Labour's Helen Clark the first woman to win the office of Prime Minister at an election.
- 936 – Shi Jingtang was enthroned as the first emperor of the Later Jin by Emperor Taizong of Liao, following a revolt against Emperor Fei of Later Tang.
- 1443 – Having deserted the army of the Ottoman Empire, Skanderbeg went to Krujë in Middle Albania and using a forged letter from Sultan Murad II to the Governor of Krujë, became lord of the city.
- 1660 – At London's Gresham College, Robert Boyle, John Wilkins, Christopher Wren and other leading scientists founded a learned society now known as the Royal Society.
- 1943 – World War II: US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin (all three pictured) met at the Tehran Conference to discuss war strategy against the Axis powers.
- 1990 – After being elected as leader of the British Conservative Party one day earlier, John Major officially succeeded Margaret Thatcher as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
- 1549 – After the death of Pope Paul III, a papal conclave with an unprecedented number of cardinal electors convened to determine his successor.
- 1729 – Natchez Indians suddenly revolted against French colonists near modern-day Natchez, Mississippi, US, killing over 240 people.
- 1781 – The crew of the overcrowded British slave ship Zong killed 133 African slaves by dumping them into the sea to claim insurance.
- 1899 – FC Barcelona, one of the most successful clubs in Spanish football, was founded by Swiss football pioneer Joan Gamper (pictured).
- 1963 – Five minutes after takeoff from Montreal, Trans-Canada Air Lines Flight 831 crashed, killing all 118 people aboard.
- 2012 – The United Nations General Assembly voted to accord non-member observer state status to Palestine.
- 1700 – Great Northern War: Swedish forces led by King Charles XII defeated the Russian army of Tsar Peter the Great at the Battle of Narva.
- 1853 – Russian warships led by Pavel Nakhimov destroyed an Ottoman fleet of frigates at the Battle of Sinop, precipitating the Crimean War.
- 1962 – Burmese diplomat U Thant (pictured) was elected United Nations Secretary-General, following the death of Dag Hammarskjöld in September 1961.
- 1979 – The Wall, a rock opera and concept album by Pink Floyd, was first released.
- 1982 – Michael Jackson's Thriller, the best-selling album of all time, was released.
- 1993 – US President Bill Clinton signed the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act into law, requiring purchasers of handguns to pass a background check.